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Credits and List Information

Introduction to this FAQ
: The thanks for this information goes to the men and women with grease under their nails - those who have answered questions on the Willys Tech list and Classic Jeep Mailing List. We hope to keep this FAQ accurate and ongoing. If you see an answer that needs more clarification, or correction, please write to the editor. If you have a question that you would like answered and kept in this FAQ, submit your question with the answer to this editor [Richard N. Meagley Sr.,

Thanks to David H. Hatch, n9zrt@arrl.net  who created and maintained this page for many years, for bestowing the privilege of maintaining this page.

A very big thanks to Off-Road.com for allowing us permission to borrow questions and answers that have appeared on the "Classic Jeep Mailing List" [CJML] and include them here.

Visit Off-Road.com's Vintage Jeep page at...

To subscribe to the Willys Tech list, go here...

To join the Classic Jeep Mailing List, go here...

To subscribe to the Classic Willys list, go here...

When credits are given, the following abbreviations will be used:
CJML = Classic Jeep Mailing List WT = Willys Tech Mailing List



Note: This is not a "purest" document.
It includes both stock restoration and conversion / modern upgrade information.


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QUESTION: What axles were used on my 2A?

ANSWER: According to Off-Road.com's Jeep facts, the front axle was a Dana/Spicer 25 with drum brakes. Early CJ-2As used the full-floating Dana/Spicer 23-2 while later models used the semi-floating Dana/Spicer 41. Off-Road.com has fine descriptions here...

Jeep Axle: Dana 25

Jeep Axle: Spicer 23-2

Jeep Axle: Dana 41



QUESTION: Has anybody had the problem of breaking the knuckle to hub bolts on a Dana 25 - if so (or not) what size tire are you running? Also if you are heavily abusing a 25 with the stock bolts I'd be interested to know.

ANSWER: Studs will just keep you from having to hold the bolt head when tightening - desirable if you remove the spindle w/o disassembling the knuckle. I'm not sure of the grade of the studs, but arbitrarily changing to grade 8 is not necessarily a good thing. Grade 8 allows for a higher torque/preload but are less tolerant of shock load. As I recall, there are locknuts on the studs which suggests to me that the designers figured that under certain conditions the tension in the stud went to zero. If that load case is true, grade 8 bolts may fail quicker than the lower grade bolts/studs.

I think the above is true, regardless of what application you are changing. Personally, if I do not know the likely load cases or previous grade, I use grade 5.

I replaced mine with studs from Leon Rosser. The reason for the studs is that the original bolts tend to rip out of the knuckle when oversize tires or power steering is installed. I've heard it can also happen w/ stock equipment. If they do rip out you can still do the fix by drilling out the knuckle holes and then putting in the studs. I already had mine apart so I went ahead and drilled 'em and put in the studs. (Figured I'd try to avoid taking them apart later). The studs I got from Rosser came in MOPAR parts bags. If you're interested you could at least save shipping by getting them through a local dealer. The bags had both an old and new part number on them. The old PN = "930301 bolt" and the new PN = "J8124847" The install was pretty easy but I had access to drill press and arbor press which made short work of it. The only other thing that needed to be done is to grind off some of the stud heads in the 3 and 9 o'clock positions to get full turning radius back. I think I have a some pictures at home of the finished knuckle I could scan if you want.

I also used bolts instead of studs on my king pins. On the knuckle lube I also went to various lists for help. I got every thing from straight gear oil to regular bearing grease and concoctions of them both. I ended up just pumping the knuckle full of high quality, high temp bearing grease. I figure it should work best and not leak as easily.

The brake conversion article I have suggests changing pressing in new knuckle studs to a stronger variety, after I removed the knuckles last night I realized that mine had no studs but are threaded and used bolts instead!

Is there an advantage to studs over some grade 8 bolts? The thing I don't like about studs in these applications is that the threads get gunked and rusted and wind up breaking like half of my king pin studs. One other difference I noticed, my manual shows the kingpins being held in with bolts, I have studs (and plan to use bolts when it goes back together.

We have the stock L134 w/ 30x9.5-15's on our jeep and did snap a hub, and axle joint, one time. We found the cause to be that the bolts came loose. We tighten and lock-tight the bolts and haven't had a problem since. I also have a L-134 bored .080 milled head and ported intake and exhaust. A big boost in power, maybe 90HP, now, with 31x11.5 Super Swamper SX's, Lockers front and rear with power steering.



QUESTION 1: What size hole should I drill?

ANSWER: 3/8" drill

QUESTION 2: Do I really have to use an Arbor Press or will these go in the way you can install wheel studs, by pulling them in with a nut?

ANSWER: Don't be afraid of this mod. It's really pretty simple and I'm pretty sure I could have done it w/ a 3/8 drill, a good 1/2 x6" bolt and a hammer (but the drill press and arbor press made it a piece of cake).

QUESTION 3: How much grinding on the 3:00 & 9:00 studs?

ANSWER: You're basically just removing the threads. The cast iron of the knuckle is not very hard so the studs should drive in pretty easy. Make sure to remove any excess casting material on the inside of the knuckle so the studs will be able to sit flush on the surface. I think the hole towards the front of the knuckle needs the most work for clearance and most of them needed no work at all. Try to get it right the first time so you don't have to remove them over & over. Once the studs are in, trial fit the knuckles on the axle to see how much grinding you'll need to get back steering radius. Use a die grinder to work on the 3 & 9 o'clock studs. Again I think it's the ones to the front of the knuckle that get the most work and it isn't too much but you may feel it is when you do it. (Sorry I had a late class last night and forgot to dig out my pics of this, I'll get 'em tonight though) Don't worry if you lose a little steering radius cause you have to give some up for the larger tires anyway.

Rather than use a nut to pull them in, I'd use a hammer and punch (or 1/2 x 6" bolt) and drive them in. Just keep them as straight as possible. Which brings us to the last tip. Have a rubber mallet handy when you go to put the spindles back on, the studs may needs light adjustments from the outside to get them back in line w/ the spindle holes. (Mine only need slight whacking w/ the rubber mallet) DON'T hit the studs w/ a regular hammer, it's just not worth it. Isn't it Merl who says "Never pound on the threaded end of anything"?



QUESTION: What lube should I use on my Dana 25 axle?

ANSWER: Manual suggests 90wt gear oil, I believe the consensus of the list on this awhile back was to use Mobil One lube grease. You won't have to worry about spots on your garage floor and water will no longer be an issue. You can spackle most of it in when you have the knuckle apart, the fill the rest of the way when assembled. Make sure you remove any burrs on the knuckle cup...they will tear the new felt gasket and cause fluid/grease leakage.

I use high temperature wheel bearing grease in my Dana 25 front knuckles. The property you are looking for in the lubricant is a stringy texture that sticks to metal even under high temperatures. I don't know of many people still using 80-90w gear oil in their front knuckles due mainly to leaks.

I still run 140W gear oil in mine. It lasts a year or so before enough of it leaks out to matter, but I have fairly new seals.

I think a lot of it depends on whether you have freewheeling hubs. With freewheeling hubs you can put in whatever's convenient since the knuckles don't turn that much.

I don't have freewheeling hubs, so I use gear oil because I have heard that you can get cavitations with grease. They say it all spins to the outside from centrifugal force and the CV fails from lack of lubrication.

There is clearly a good deal of disagreement on this among Jeep owners and mechanics. For a while I subscribed to the mil-veh list where the consensus seemed to favor 140W gear oil. But there certainly are many who use grease.

I was thinking that chassis grease or wheel bearing grease just wouldn't splash around in there as the designers wished. Thick stuff just would get slung to the outside and kingpin bearings, etc. would suffer. Something oily is necessary like SAE 90 or 140. Possibly track roller grease like is used in Caterpillar rollers might be thin enough. My GPW just has chassis grease in it and I am afraid of what I might find when I pull it apart. These things were designed in the days when nobody cared if they dripped a little. When they quit dripping it was time to fill them up again. I generally stick with the original manufactures recommendations, or something close if it is available.

When I rebuilt the front end of my wagon I used a 600W oil. It was used in Model A rear ends. It does flow and will drip but it won't get thrown out of the way. No problems in the winter either. Seemed to be the best of both worlds.

I use Molybond and have done so for many years. It's terrible stuff to handle because it sticks to anything and has such a high graphite content, but it won't leak out, won't get affected with water, won't "spin off" and stays consistent during heat.

I use Molybond in my steering boxes, steering knuckles, tie rods, bell cranks, drag links, and on all springs grease points. It's also great on things like the pivot points for the clutch mechanisms and brake pedal grease points. It *cannot* be used anywhere near brake linings.

When you wish to use it in your steering knuckles or steering boxes, I recommend that you just pump it in until it's full. Then during normal driving (and when you put the Jeep away) just hop under the axle or the hood and wipe away the excess with a rag soaked in kero. Eventually, it will stop pushing out the extra grease and you won't have to do it anymore.

QUESTION 2: STA-LUBE Brand Moly-Graph grease - designed for high temp applications and seems to have the same properties as "Bens magic lube." Ever hear of this stuff?

ANSWER 2: This is a very good grease, and the one I always use for general purpose greasing. I don't know if it is the equivalent of Ben's magic grease, but it is a darned good product. I use it or the lubriplate grease in the little tube you can buy at any parts store for about everything. I like the lubriplate better for places where a thinner high temperature grease is needed, such as the cam in a distributor, and I have a mixture of graphite and some lubriplate grease that I use for speedometer cables, but the Sta-Lube Molly grease is great for all utility anointings. Note: It can be really tough to wash out of clothes.



QUESTION[S]: Starting with the brakes and working inward, I've been tinkering with the front axle. The manual says the lower king pin bearing caps were installed with .058" shim packs to the bottom face of the king pin boss from the factory. These were nonexistent on my jeep, so I made a batch. The book also says any further adjustments are to be done with shims under the upper bearing caps, using these shims (also nonexistent; made them too): .003" .005".010" .030" The book then says to install one of each at the top only. So far so good. Am I understanding this correctly: Preloading the bearings means that it should take a minimum of 12 pounds pull to start the knuckle moving? Starting with all the shims in place gives the least amount of preload, and removing them makes it tighter? After taking everything apart there were no shims on either side, except .015 under the LHS upper bearing cap. The lower bearing cup on that side was absolutely hammered by the rollers in the bearing. What does the tool look like that removes/installs the cup? The side with no shims what gauges ever looks fine (not that I know what fine looks like inside a 4wd axle). If removing shims makes it tighter, shouldn't this side have been *awful* tight? Is it possible that the bearing cups have been rolled (or squeezed out) thinner? Is there a minimum thickness to these cups, or is that what all the shimming takes care of?

ANSWER: I would think that if you've got a model-25 axle it'd be the same as a 2A. My 2A manual says basically the same as yours, but it doesn't mention anything about the .058" shims from the factory. Mine also says that if using no shims at all still leaves the preload too loose, "a washer may be used under the top bearing cap to increase preload. When a washer is used, shims may have to be reinstalled to obtain proper adjustment." When I did my 2A there were existing shims on the bottom AND top on one side, but only on the top on the other.

None of it will work *unless* the cones and bearings are unmarked.



QUESTION: What is the difference between a floating and semi-floating


ANSWER: Axles are classified by the way in which the half-shafts and wheel hubs are supported -- half-shafts are the two longitudinal members of the axle which 'meet' at the differential.

In a semi-floating axle, each half-shaft is supported at its inner end by a bearing, which also carries the differential. At the outer end, there is a bearing between the shaft and the inside of the axle housing. This design is often used in passenger cars, as all the half-shafts have to sustain is the weight of the car.

In a three-quarter floating axle, there is also a hearing inside the axle housing which supports the diff, but the outer bearing is situated between the wheel hub and the axle housing, to support the weight of the vehicle when cornering. Here, the half-shaft is subjected to extra load only when cornering.

In a fully floating axle, there are two bearings between each hub and the axle housing, and these carry both the weight of the vehicle and the extra stress imposed during cornering.

The benefits...

The wheel supports the full weight of the vehicle on bearing races. You can pull the axle without jacking up the vehicle. Just unbolt the hub and pull it out. You can drive on them in front-wheel-drive with no axles in the rear. A semi-floater has only one set of bearings instead of two and the bearings only support *most* of the weight; the rest is supported by the axle itself. Because of this the axle must be way thicker. The bearings also don't lock the wheel in place, so if you break an axle the wheel can come right off. This is why semi-floating axles have C-clips; to keep the axles from coming out and taking the wheel with it. And remember, to get at these C-clips you'd have to drain the diff. and open it up. Full-floaters need no c-clips because the axles can't go anywhere; they're held in by being bolted to the wheel. In general, It's easier to work on a full-floater.


Rear Axle - Semi-Floating vs. Full Floating Axle

Take me back to the menu



QUESTION: Where does the Long Shoe go?
ANSWER: -SHIORT ------ On the CJ2A the long shoe goes to the FORWARD

ANSWER: LONG ----- Because the CJ2A has the bottom of the shoes anchored the long shoes go forward. Newer vehicles have "BENDIX" type brakes have a "Star Adjuster" and the bottom of the shoes can move. The  BENDIX type brakes have the long shoe to the rear.


QUESTION: How do I adjust my brakes?

ANSWER: Before I get going on this I should mention that although this explanation will work on those models with both "heel" and "toe" adjustment, and "feeler" slots in the drums, there is a better method.

Let's start from the presumption that the following work has been done on the brake system:

1. All the brake lines have been replaced and/or, are not internally rusted and clear.

2. All the slave cylinders and the master cylinder have honed and if they have pitting in them, they have been re-sleeved. (I do them in stainless steel).

3. New cups have been inserted. (Rubber grease).

4. All the brake shoes are in good order and if the radius measurement is oversize then they have been replaced with oversize shoes.

5. The shoes have been "matched" to each drum and machined to fit.

6. Each drum has been skimmed and made as round as possible in an old vehicle.

I guess mention should be made that all flaring on brakes should NEVER be single flares. And, it would be sensible to clean the system with metho and fill with synthetic to avoid future water attraction and internal rusting.

So you've done the preparation and now you'd like a hard pedal and good brakes. You can do this job by yourself, or with someone in the drivers seat giving you a hand. If you're by yourself you need to run the motor and drive the wheels so make sure that you have been safety conscience and the vehicle is very secure on the stands.

Place the vehicle on stands so that all wheels are off the ground. Starting from the wheel that has the shortest brake lines (from the master cylinder) you: A). Adjust the shoes outwards so that the wheel can just be turned (with a fair bit of oomph from you). B). Hop into the drivers seat. Put the vehicle into gear and rotate the wheels slowly. WHILST the wheels are turning, pump the brake pedal about 6-12 times. Stop the wheels. C). Go back to the same wheel and you'll find that you'll be able to adjust it out some more. Do that. D). Repeat B). E). If necessary repeat C).

Now do the next closest wheel to the master cylinder. Work your way around the vehicle.

The reason you need to "bed" the brake shoes are because these models don't have a "heel" camber adjustment and each time you "pump" the pedal you are adjusting the "heel" of the shoe.

The shoes should have about 5 thou clearance between the shoe and the drum (internally). 5 thou is pretty close and unless you have an MB or GPW with slots in the drums, you can't do a measurement.

If you use your own strength whilst adjusting outwards you'll find that if you can move the wheel by hand (even though it may "sound" as if it's scraping) - it won't be too tight.

Your goal is to have a "solid" pedal with about 1 inch of movement.



QUESTION: Can I add power brakes to my old Jeep?

ANSWER: If what you are after is disc brakes you can have that with your stock running gear. I have a 47 CJ 2-a with disc brakes front and rear with the stock dana 25 and dana 44. How I did this was I got backing plates, spindles, calipers, and rotors off of a Chevy half ton pickup. It all bolts on and you can use ford half ton rotors or Jeep rotors and spindles to keep the 5 lug pattern. That is what it takes to put them on the front and maybe a little grinding for caliper clearance. On the rear they bolt on also but you have to get axles made because what you are doing is full floating the rearend. So is that you will have hubs on the rear or you can take the hubs off of a full time front end and not have hubs. I almost forgot you need stub axles from an early chevy dana closed knuckle front end the u joints on that stub axle and the one on the inner axle on the 25 are of the same size and you need the stub to match the finer spline on the internal hub. As for power brakes I would go to a wrecking yard and take some measurments and see what you can fit in your engine compartment and if you change to four wheel disc brakes I would find a master cylinder off of a car that has four wheel disc brakes.



QUESTION: Is there anything I should watch out for when mounting disc brakes?

ANSWER: Here is a great site on how to do that...

Disc Conversion

Be careful not mount the caliper backwards so that the bleeder isn't as high as it can be. I mounted my calipers on the wrong side at first and fought with trying to bleed them and then discovered they were on the wrong sides and swapped them around and the brakes bled out right away then.

I remember an old mechanic telling me how most calipers are mounted on the aft side. Supposedly they get less slush and mud on them that way. I vaguely remember Ford had a problem with their trucks in the mid-70's due to the calipers being on the front. Ford's fix was to change over to aft mounted calipers on later years.

Also, the flexible brake hose would be in a more protected location behind the axle.

One word of warning on the conversion I used 77 1/2 ton backing plates and 86 calipers, the calipers fit except that you have to grind a notch on the left hand backing plate. The 77 plates are the same on both sides apparently they are different in later years and the left hand caliper has a projection which lines up with a notch in the backing plate. Takes about 5 minutes with a grinder to adapt it.

Don't forget you need to plug the fill hole w/ a flush fitting plug that doesn't stick too far into the knuckle. (Wouldn't want it to hit anything in there would we?) Since you have the knuckle off, now's a good time to take it with you and try to find that plug. I had to use an Allen head pipe plug that I put on a lathe and rethread to get it to fit to the right depth. Then I cut off the top to make it fit flush with the knuckle. (In case you're wondering, I chucked a cutoff Allen wrench in the lathe and stuck the plug on it and held the plug on with the end stock) This was much easier having the knuckle there to test fit after each cut.



QUESTION: What are micro-brakes?

ANSWER: For those of you whom may not know what a mico brake is it a supplementary hydraulic braking system that pressurizes you regular brakes, it is NOT a replacement for a parking brake but to be used in combination with one.

Lately I have been thinking about adding a mico to my jeep when I redo my brake system. When I thought about this the way the 66 CJ that I have is a single chamber master cylinder like most early jeeps. The problem when I try to sketch the plumbing out on paper is that the lines split directly out of the master cylinder. This would be a problem because you cannot pressurize the whole system at the same time, and then would not be effective as it was designed.

I purchased a Mico Lock from my local auto parts store. I installed it in the front brake lines when I installed disc brakes so that I could lock the brakes when outside running the winch. The one I had, was electrically actuated by a switch, press the brake pedal, and the "lock" maintained the pressure. It would continue to maintain pressure, until turned off and the pedal pressed again. Over time, it would bleed down - hence it is not a replacement for parking brakes.

The second one I purchased was a Hurst Roll-Control, also from a local store, but I think Summitt Racing carries them. I installed it when converting the rear brakes to disc. It came w/ a cute little switch that mounted to the shift lever. It was intended to make pulling away from a stop sign on a hill easier (you do not roll backwards into the grill of some knot-head that pulled up inches from your bumper). As I recall, you hold the switch in when stopped with the brakes on, take your foot off the brakes and modulate the clutch and foot feed, click the switch again, and away you go. I never used it enough to get the sequence right. I have gotten them from a company called AW Direct out of Berlin CT phone 800 243 3194. The mico brakes run from 184.95 for the basic lever lock single cylinder, the dual lock runs 412.95 for electronically controlled ones you jump up to the $900 range and then they can run up to 1080.95 for a three channel ABS system.


Take me back to the menu



QUESTION: Can I tell what year my jp was built by the serial number?

ANSWER: You sure can. See below...

1945 CJ-2A 10001 11824 1824
1946 CJ-2A 11825 83379 71554
1947 CJ-2A 83380 148458 65078
1948 CJ-2A 148459 222581 74122
1949 CJ-2A 222582 224764 2182



QUESTION: Where are my serial numbers?

ANSWER: There are three serial number locations: Frame: Serial numbers are located on the out side of the left front frame horn, behind the bumper. An exception to this is the first 100 or so 1945s where the frame tag is on the inside frame horn reinforcement like the MBs. Engine: The engine number was located at the front of the engine block on the water pump boss. Body: On passenger side of firewall, under the hood.

See the frame serial number location here...




QUESTION: My '46 2a grill has the bullet lights plus another set of cone shaped lights below them can anyone help identify this grill? I've looked at tons of pics and have never seen another like it.

ANSWER: They may be "add-on" turn signals put in by a previous owner. That has been seen before.



QUESTION: Does anybody know how the data plate on the dash and the serial number tags under the hood were originally attached? Mine were all secured with sheet metal screws when I got it. I was wondering if they originally had rivets, especially the serial number tags.

ANSWER: Sheet metal screws



QUESTION 1: My 2A sits outside. I noticed water in the concave area of the spark plug nearest the firewall. Obviously rain is coming through the bonnet-to-firewall hinged/gap. Any solutions?

ANSWER 2: Somewhere I've read/seen something about a piece that was available, it bolted on in between the hinge and body. If you're not worried about originality a piece of aluminum siding J-channel might work, or bend up your own out of sheet metal.

I have an original gutter on my 3A and it doesn't work well either. Its wierd the way its designed, running perhaps 18" along under the hinge, but slotted in from the ends maybe 8" on either end. Before I did my resto, I sealed the slots.

QUESTION 2: Just below the hinge for the hood, there is a flange sticking forward, part of the firewall, running from side to side. About 1 foot in the middle had been bent up slightly. I thought it might have been damage from the engine being pulled out for rebuild many years ago. Now that I look a little closer, it looks like it was carefully bent up, just a little, to form a gutter and keep rainwater off the engine. I wonder if this was a common modification.

ANSWER 2: Not a modification but standard or optional equipment for the universal jeep. It was a rain gutter to channel the water away from the engine. Both my 1949 CJ3A and `1957 CJ3B have this piece. It bolts on using the hood attachment bolts and is a seperate piece.

Here are some pics...

Both photos show the rain gutter bolted to the cab with the hood hinge bolts on a 3B...

(the following links are now dead -  if you know where it is email Ric@MightyMo.org)

http://www.ghg.net/ftwood/willys/images/63cj3b1/3b1engl. jpg  
http://www.ghg.net/ftwood/willys/images/63cj3b1/3b1engr. jpg



QUESTION: Does anybody know what type of wood was originally used for the hood blocks on a CJ2A?

ANSWER: The blocks were unfinished, although many restorers use a clear wood finish, such as polyurethane, to give some protection.

They were secured with counterbored (not countersunk) machine screws, #10 I believe. (A counterbore has a flat bottom while a countersink is angled. I think they probably used a regular drill, which would have left a shallow angle, but have never seen an original block that is in good enough shape to be able to tell).

The round-head, slotted-drive screw, and washer, go down through the block, then the hood, and there are washers and nuts below. Mine had square nuts but it is not clear that these were original.

I don't know if this will help you, Vern But here's a rundown on the 3A blocks. Softwood, unidentifiable wood, quarter-sawed, 4" x 1" x 1.5"(h) , machine screw to hood w nut beneath, countersunk .75". (I made mine out of white oak, gave them a coat of urethane or two, and they look great. I still have the originals, but they are really weather beaten) The new ones were cut from a weathered piece I had laying around, so I just put the weathered side up.

Pine with a tung oil finish. Running down(length wise) the top of the wooden supports is a slot(made by using a router) .25" deep, .5" wide. In this slot/grove is a waxed, cotton cord. The purpose of this "cord" is to act as a bumper for the windshield. Surplus City sells a dandy replica of the whole shooting match. Blocks, cord and screws. I don't remember what the cost was but it was very inexpensive. Hope this helps.



QUESTION: What type of fasteners where used for small body parts?

ANSWER: Mine had square nuts but it is not clear that these were original. Only for the sake of true restoration, almost all, if not all, of the smaller, body fasteners (machine screws #12-8) used square nuts on my almost unaltered 3A, including harness straps, footman loops, hood bumpers, etc.



QUESTION: What were the factory colors / pin stripes for the 2A?

ANSWER: All CJ-2A wheels had a pin stripe. This stripe was usually either black or ivory or it was the body color.

The body color options with pin stripes were...

1945 to 1946 (column shift) - There were only 2 colors available. Pasture Green (A John Deere-like green) and Harvest Tan (a dark tan, light brown).

Pasture Green used a Autumn Yellow (a bright yellow) wheel with a Pasture Green stripe.

Harvest Tan used Sunset Red (not red but a bright pumpkin orange) wheels

with a American Black pinstripe.

These are the only "official" column shift colors

1946 (non-column shift) - Pasture Green and Harvest Tan were dropped. 4 more colors were added. Princeton Black (sometimes mentioned as Americar Black), Normandy Blue (a real dark Navy Blue), Michigan Yellow (a medium yellow) and Harvard Red (a bright red).

Princeton Black - Still unsure on this one since it was such a rare color. Period color ads show a Princeton Black either a Harvard Red or Sunset Red wheels with a American Black stripe. I'm sure any of the wheel colors could have been used with this color.

Normandy Blue came with 2 different wheel colors. One was Autumn Yellow with a Normandy Blue or American Black stripe. The other was Sunset Red with a Normandy Blue or American Black stripe.

Michigan Yellow came with 3 different wheel colors. One was Pasture Green with a Michigan Yellow stripe. An other was American Black with a Ivory stripe. The last one was Sunset Red with a American Black stripe.

Harvard Red came with 2 different wheel colors. One was Autumn Yellow with a Harvard Red stripe. The other was American Black with a Ivory Stripe.

1947 - Harvard Red was dropped. Picket Gray (a dark gray) and Luzon Red (a maroonish red) added.

Picket Gray had a Harvard Red wheel with a American Black stripe.

Luzon Red had a Universal Beige wheel with a Luzon Red stripe.

1948 - Potomac Gray (a light gray ) added.

Potomac Gray came with 2 different wheel colors. One was Harvard Red wheel with a American Black stripe. The other American Black with a Ivory stripe.

1949 - Picket Gray, Normandy Blue, Michigan Yellow dropped. Emerald Green (a dark green) added. I am not sure what the color is on this color is yet.

Somewhere in there Olive Drab was added (probably 1946 or 1947 since it is listed in the 1947 parts book). I would suspect it was for export models.

Authored by Todd Paisley, CJML



QUESTION: Are your shure the air-cleaner devices were painted same color as engine? According to what I have read in a book these parts were painted black, (not glossy).

ANSWER: The chassis, engine, air cleaner were all glossy black. They were not the flat black (or satin black) that other manufacturer's used.

At least on the CJ-2A, there were a couple different kinds of black:

1) W.O Part Number # 641237 Black Chassis Enamel (W.O. Specification -202) - This is the black used on the engine and the chassis components. It also was used for the wheels when they were painted black. The thinners used for this paint were:

a) W.O Part Number # 641240 Thinner for Synthetic Paints Gen. Purpose (W.O. Specification J-003)

b) W.O Part Number # 641241 Thinner for Synthetic Paints Slow Drying (W.O. Specification J-004)

2) W.O. Part Number # 641238 Grip-Tite Non-Skid Black Decking (W.O. Specification J-402) - This was used on the clutch and brake pedals.

3) W.O. Part Number # 641239 Acid Proof Black Lacquer (W.O. Specification J-303) - This was used on the battery tray and components.

4) W.O. Part Number # 643437 Black Dipping Enamel (W.O. Specification J-207) - This was used to paint a lot of the smaller parts.

5) W.O. Part Number # 663532 Americar Black (Striping Lacquer) - Used for those wheels with a black pin stripe. Thinners used were:

a) W.O Part Number # 641849 Anti-Skinning Agent for Americar Black

6) W.O. Part Number # 666781 Black (Air Dry Enamel) - Used to paint misc. parts that were painted black.

You also have to understand that a lot of the parts of the CJ-2A were purchased elsewhere. As part of the contract between them and the vendor, the parts may have been specified to have been painted "black". If Willys-Overland did not repaint them, odds are the shades and the degree of gloss would have varied. (For example: The air cleaner was purchased from Oakes Products Division (Houdaille-Hershey). There interpretation of what was "black enamel", may have been off a little bit.)

Todd Paisley



QUESTION 1: I have always wondered was why they deleted the glove box on the CJ's?

ANSWER 1: Cost. The addition of the glovebox added cost to the vehicle. They did all kinds of things to try and save money. What was rather amusing was Willys seemed to waffle on whether to make a full hub cap standard on the 463. The idea kept cropping up in the Engineering Release Forms, but the idea was always cancelled or never released due to cost. It would show up one time and cancelled. Then it would crop up again a few months later and be cancelled. Another example is the extra seats in the back for the 463. They were standard items for the first couple years. But later on they were transfered to the Optional Equipment Group to save cost.

QUESTION 2: Were some of the dies the same as the MB dies?

ANSWER 2: Some of the tooling may have been used early on, but there are not a whole lot of body panels that are exactly the same on the CJ-2A and the MB (Although on the surface they look the same and are interchangeable.) You also have to understand that the tooling had a useful life. There are lots of entries in the Engineering Release Forms to change shapes and cuts to prolong tool and die life. They were very concerned about saving money. At some point the tooling would wear out and need to be repaced.

Some of the tooling may have been used early on, but there are not a whole lot of body panels that are exactly the same on the CJ-2A and the MB (Although on the surface they look the same and are interchangeable.) You also have to understand that the tooling had a useful life. There are lots of entries in the Engineering Release Forms to change shapes and cuts to prolong tool and die life. They were very concerned about saving money. At some point the tooling would wear out and need to be repaced.

QUESTION 3: Were any 2As "composite"?

ANSWER 3: Composite refers to the common body Ford and Willys agreed to in late 1943. Willys referred to these bodies as the "MB-FW". (Ford-Willys). During this time frame, American Central could manufacture more bodies than Willys could handle, while Ford at the time had more government contracts for other types of war items. It was determined that the best use of Ford's resources would be to devote them to the other contracts and allow American Central to make the bodies for Ford. The characteristics of both the Willys and Ford tubs were combined to make one "composite" body. (Although some individual characteristics still were retained.)

QUESTION 4: I realize that I am mis-using the term "composite" here. (and I am not entirely clear just what it means in relation to the GPWs) What I mean is: were any of the body "tubs" out- sourced?

ANSWER 4: All CJ-2A bodies were built by American Central. Willys-Overland was primarily an assembler of parts and not a large manufacturer of parts.

QUESTION 5: And who were these outside vendors? And did they play any part in post-war jeep production?

ANSWER 5: Depends on whether you mean body vendors or vendor in particular. So far I have identified 323 vendors who supplied parts to Willys-Overland for the Jeep. There were a variety of companies producing body parts. Depending on what model, it could be American Central (CJ-2A and early 463) or Briggs Manufacturing (later 463, 4T, 2T), Hayes (463, 663 tailgates and wheelhouses) and some other manufacturer I can't think of of the top of my head that made the 463 hoods. At some point, Willys decided to bring back production of the bodies in house and American Central bodies were phased out.

QUESTION 6: Had they also considered the heater at this time? Adding a heater behind the glove box would have been a bit awkward.

ANSWER 6: Heater on the 2A is on the driver's side.

Todd Paisley - CJML



QUESTION: Can you describe the 2A grille variants?

ANSWER: There were only 2 kinds of grills used on the 2A. The early grill used the same kind of parking lamp holes as the MB, basically cutouts in the vertical grill face, with a horizontal support platform running diagonally from the back of the grill face to the side of the grill-to-radiator shroud. Bullet style parking lamps with either chrome (late) or painted (early) bezels bolted to the horizontal support. Sometime later in production ('47?) they did it differently, instead of a large hole with the bullet style lamps, the grill had a concave surface stamped into it with a small hole in the middle. The parking lamp lens and bezel bolted to (or through) the grill with the lamp wiring going through the hole in the middle of the concave area. This later part I'm not too sure about.

See the bullet lamps from the backside...


See bullet lamps up close...


As per " Parts List, Jeep, CJ2A/CJ3A......... Parking "Lamp" up to SN# 45680 Door ( outer portion of lamp, NOT a bezel ) is black finish flat lenses....

Parking "lamp" up to SN# CJ2A 97740 Round no bezel, chrome plated door, flat lens

Parking "light" CJ2A after SN# 97740 and all CJ3As, bezel, had convex lens

Does not appear to be a change in the grill other than the fact that the up to SN# 97740 would have a rounded in finished hole for the parking lamp since they were not mounted through the grill, but to a bracket on the inside of the grill Where the After SN# 97740 CJ2As and ALL 3As and Bs and beyond were mounted in the hole with a screw through the top and bottom of the bezel, and had convex lenses.



QUESTION: Anyone know how to easily tell the 2A grill from the 3A grill? I have a grill from one of the two but cannot tell which. It does not have the bullet style parking lamps so I know it is not an early 2A. What about the late 2A from the 3A?

ANSWER: The early 3A would have the same grill as the late 2A.



QUESTION: Does anyone know what type of wood was used in the body supports [of the 2A's]?

ANSWER: From what I've read, it is white oak.



QUESTION: What are the parts numbers for the weather-strip on the windscreen?

ANSWER: I'm pretty sure that it is [J.C. Whitney] 81nf8835t, $8.99 for 8 feet. On a side-by-side

comparison with the old rubber, there's virtually no difference.

I've also found that JCW's 81nf2465n weather-strip with built-in lock-strip ($22.95 for 16 feet) is an "exact" replacement for the side window weather-strip on my Utility Delivery Parkway conversion.



QUESTION: How do I improve the operation of my vacuum motors?

ANSWER 1: Vacuum windshield wiper motors work using a leather or rubber flap which is sealed with grease in the casing. Since these motors are usually 40+ years old, the grease can dry up. If the flap itself is not rotted or worn out, you can often get a vacuum motor working again by following these steps:

1. Remove the wiper motor from the car.

2. Find a clean spot and lay out paper (to catch small parts)

3. Remove the screws (sometimes special square-headed) that secure the top plate to the half-round main body. Make sure you note the position of any hardware, sliding parts, etc.

4. Lift the top plate off and set it aside.

5. Examine the flap. If it is rotted or obviously damaged, you need to get it rebuilt. Hemmings Motor News lists several services that rebuild wiper motors.

6. Use brake cleaner to remove all old grease from the inside of the half-round main body.

7. Apply a thin layer of smooth, NON-DETERGENT grease to the inside. DO NOT use wheel bearing grease. Detergent grease will eat up the flap.

8. Reassemble and reinstall the vacuum motor. If it still doesn't work, send it off to be rebuilt or replace it.

ANSWER 2: To lube the vacuum motor, I use graphite in an alcohol base. It is watery thin so gives good penetration to the moving parts, and then the alcohol evaporates and you have a non-sticky lubricant. I got real tired of cleaning off the dirt and stuff that was attracted by oil type lubes.

See a vacuum wiper motor here...


See a vacuum wiper hose connected to the intake manifold here...




QUESTION: Where can I get replica data plates?

ANSWER: You can buy them from...

PO Box 191
Bowie TX 79009
(940) 872-2403
FAX (940) 872-3406

Gary or Louie
Farmington, MN

See some repros on a 2A here...


Take me back to the menu



QUESTION: I was adjusting the clutch pedal free play last night on my 48 CJ2A last night and had a question. How much end play is normal on the cross shaft between the frame and transfer case?

ANSWER: It's been a while since I redid all that, so remembering. Radial play is the most common, as ball pivot on xfercase wears on one side. End play of .125" is nothing. [Another adds] If I remember right my jeep had about a half of an inch of play when I still had the stock pedals.



QUESTION: I've got a question about how the brake and clutch pedals are supposed to be installed on my 48 CJ2A. There is a raised lip on one edge only of each pedal. The pedals are mirror images of each other, one has the lip on the left side, the other pedal has the lip on the right. Which way are the raised lips supposed to go, on the inside or outside of the feet?

ANSWER: The book says the raised edges are together, under the steering. This, so as not to hinder the foot getting from the gas to the brake.



QUESTION: While putting the clutch back together in my 48' 2A I ran into a question. The center piece of the clutch disk protrudes farther on one side than the other. My memory and plain fit tell me that the longer side goes toward the T.O. bearing and that the shallower side toward the flywheel. However, the illustration in my HAYNES manual shows the longer side going towards the flywheel. I have found other incorrect illustrations in this book but my nagging insecurities prompt me to make 100% sure by submitting the question to you more knowledgeable folk. Please allay my fears and tell me if I am correct or is Mr. Haynes?

[CJML - Gary A. Anderson]

ANSWER: The side that does not stick out goes to[ward] the flywheel. That should be true for most clutch disks.

[CJML- Sam Warfield]

Take me back to the menu


Take me back to the menu



QUESTION: Why would I have spark in a cylinder but it is not firing? I *can* tell from the tune-up machine scope that the plug is actually firing (gets the voltage spiking that you'd expect). Compressed air shows the valves are working properly, and both wet and dry compression checks come out ok (about like the others). The thing seems to run pretty much as it should at idle, and then if you short out 1, 2, or 4 you get a miss and drop in RPM. With #3 shorted, it runs the same as not shorted - I even tried different distributor caps, plugs, plug leads - same results. Its almost like its actually firing on 3 with or without the plug shorted :) (of course, this is at idle - driving it with the plug wire off, you can definitly notice a power loss) The system is still 6 volt. Why is it not firing?

ANSWER: Your symptoms a highly suggestive of a ***weak*** spark as compared to an absence of spark. I say this because you have a 6 volt system, which means you have a generator. Almost all generators have larger pulleys than do alternators, and therefore spin at a lower speed than an alternator does for a given engine RPM. As I think back about the generator equipped cars and trucks I have owned (four of them), it seems to me that the ammeter would register a slight discharge when the motor was idling. This means that it is putting out at a lower voltage than the battery, probably around 5.5 volts.

With a 6 volt system, you are undoubtedly running the breaker point/capacitor/coil system for creating the high voltage necessary to fire the plugs. This system uses energy stored in the form of a magnetic field:

The cycle begins when the ignition points *close*, completing an electrical circuit from the power source (the battery), through the ignition switch, to the coil, to the distributor points, which connect to the grounded motor block, hence back to the battery.

This completed electrical path, or circuit allows current to flow through the "primary" winding of the ignition coil. This in turn creates a magnetic field, with is concentrated by the iron core of the coil. This represents stored energy that can be used to create a high voltage output. The current flows for as long as the points are closed, which is referred to as the "dwell time," or simply the "dwell." It is important that you have the proper dwell. Too short a dwell time, and the core will not have sufficient time to fully charge with magnetic energy, or "flux." Too long a dwell causes unnecessary heat build up in the coil, which can shorten its life expectancy. The proper dwell is designed into the cam lobes in the distributor, but this can change if the lobes become worn down. In an ideal situation, the lobes will allow the points to remain closed long enough for sufficient flux to build up in the core of the coil at the highest design RPM of the motor, but not so long as to excessively overheat the coil during periods of prolonged idle. This wear on the lobes is one reason why you should replace or rebuild a point equipped distributor periodically. I like to do it about every 60 to 75 thousand miles. Good cam grease can prolong the life of a cam substantially.

You can test to see if your cam is worn by using a dwell meter in conjunction with a timing light and a set of feeler gages:

Install a new set of points, setting them as accurately as possible to the manufacturer's specified gap. This may take you several tries. Now, start the motor and set the timing to the factory specification. Use a known good (read accurate) dwell meter and check the dwell reading. If it falls within the manufacturer's specification, your distributor cam is OK. If it does not, you need to replace or rebuild your distributor.

Next, use the timing light and observe the timing mark for several seconds. If it is perfectly steady, your distributor is in good shape mechanically. If it moves around, or dances, something is worn in the system. Possible causes of dancing timing include excessive wear in the bearing between the drive shaft of the distributor and the part that supports the rotor (I find this to be the most common problem); a loose breaker point mounting plate (another very common problem - check the pivot where the plate moves under the control of the vacuum advance unit - Note that the early jeeps do not have a vacuum advance); weak, damaged, or missing springs or weights in the centrifugal advance unit; warped or improperly mounted points; or occasionally a worn distributor drive dear or timing gear/timing chain.

It is important to know how the coil and points work to create the high voltage needed to fire the plugs. This happens when the points ****OPEN****. When the points open, the electrical circuit that was supplying current to the primary of the spark coil is interrupted. Without the energy supplied by the current flowing through the primary, the magnetic field in the core of the coil begins to collapse. I will not go into the physics involved, but suffice it to say that the collapsing magnetic filed induces a voltage in the windings of the coil that is trying to sustain the collapsing magnetic field. This induced voltage will be opposite in polarity to the voltage that sustained the current that created the magnetic field in the first place.

This induced voltage is called "magnetic kick." The amplitude of the "kick" is dependant on the *rate* at which the field collapses. The faster the collapse, the higher the "kick" voltage. The speed of the collapse (and therefore the magnitude of the "kick") is highest if there is a very high resistance between the terminals of the windings, and correspondingly is lower as this resistance increases.

There are two windings in a spark coil. The primary winding is composed of relatively few turns of relatively heavy wire, and the secondary winding is composed of a relatively great many turns of relatively fine wire. "Relatively" is used to compare the two windings with each other, not necessarily with any other frame of reference. The exact gage and number of turns is determined by the design parameters of the coil. The Primary winding has its ends connected to the two terminals on top of the coil marked "ign" or "+" and "gnd" or "-". The secondary winding has one end connected to the case of the coil and the other end terminates at the high voltage output where the wire that goes to the distributor cap is attached.

An inductive "kick" is created in both the primary and the secondary windings. Because there are a lot more turns in the secondary, the magnitude of the "kick" is much higher in the secondary. It is this voltage that is used to fire the plugs.

However, provision must be made to deal with the primary "kick." If the primary "kick" is allowed to dump itself across the points as they open, the resulting arc will very rapidly destroy the points! The capacitor is used to store the energy from the inductive "kick" in the primary winding.

When the points close, the capacitor stores an electrical charge at the voltage of the system (about 6 volts). When the points open, the voltage in the primary begins to rise in response to the collapsing magnetic field. This rising voltage is stored inside the capacitor where it is held until the points close again, shorting out the capacitor. Because the energy is bled out from the capacitor over a relatively long period of time when compared to the time it took the magnetic field to collapse, the voltage is lower, and the points are protected.

It is important that the capacitor have the right value to work properly. Too much capacitance, and it will slow down the collapse of the magnetic field, causing a weak spark. Note that both the primary and secondary windings draw the energy for their respective inductive "kicks" from the same source - the collapsing field in the core of the coil. Too little, and it will not be able to store enough of the energy induced in the primary when the field collapses, resulting in poor point life. The exact value of capacitance needed depends on several factors, including the specific parameters in the particular coil installed (inductance, resistance of the windings, etc). I do not change out a capacitor when doing a tune-up if the points are wearing uniformly, as it is properly balanced to that system. On the other hand, I have been known to buy a half a dozen capacitors and try to find the best one by substitution. Yes, it costs some money, but it gets the best performance from the system.

It is possible that the capacitor, points, etc. are working to specification, but you will still have a weak spark. A high resistance short anywhere within the coil itself that could be syphoning off power from that should be going to make a good, hot spark. Also, a short to ground anywhere in the high voltage side can rob a lot of power. Other possible sources of "power theft" include: A cracked or delaminated core in the coil; bad high voltage (plug) wires, including the insulating boots; cracked or moist cap; cracked rotor; or a cracked porcelain on one or more plugs. There is a simple "farmer's method" test to see if you are getting a good, "hot" spark. It was taught to me by my father:

With the engine off, remove a plug wire and insert a short (about 2-1/2" to 3" long) 1/4" bolt into the boot. Push it in far enough so that it is fully inside the connection in the boot. Rest the bolt on the block someplace to short it to ground. Start the motor and carefully move the bolt away from the block, very slowly. WARNING - SHOCK HAZARD! Observe the spark that jumps between the head of the bolt and the block. THE FOLLOWING COMMENTS APPLY ONLY TO A BREAKER POINT IGNITION SYSTEM. A modern computer controlled ignition has a much different characteristic appearance to the spark. All of the tests are done with a warm motor (the battery has had a chance to recharge after starting the motor) with the motor at idle speed....

First, observe the *length* of the spark. Move the bolt away from the block until a spark no longer jumps across. Now move it back towards the block until the spark starts up again. You are looking for the longest spark you can make *that will fire every time.* Eyeball estimate the length as best you can. The 1/4" bolt makes a good reference for you to use.

"Minimum" spark - You should be able to produce a spark ***at least*** 1/4" long. It takes a lot more voltage to cause a spark under the pressures inside the cylinder on the compression stroke than it does in free air, as you are testing. A 1/4" arc represents the minimum voltage needed for good ignition, particularly if the motor is old and pumping oil.

"Average" spark - Most breaker point systems in good shape will throw a spark about 3/8 of an inch. This should be enough to do the job.

"Strong" spark - well optimized breaker point system can throw a spark a half inch or more. I used the "swap the condenser" method to get the best possible spark from a '53 Dodge WM300 "Power Wagon" I use to own. It would throw a spark almost 5/8 of an inch once the generator had sufficient time to recharge the battery.

Now, observe the **color** of the spark. I think it is due to the duration of the spark, or how long it takes the field to collapse to the point where it can no longer sustain the arc.

A "Cold" spark - This type of spark is thin and light blue in color. This is the kind of spark you will see with modern computer controlled motors, which throw a very long, light blue spark. They use a spark of relatively short duration because this type of spark can be controlled more precisely.

A "Hot" spark - A "hot" spark appears orangeish or yellowish, and is wider than a "cold" spark. Dad said that it represented plenty of current flowing in the arc. All I know is that any time I saw a Hot spark at least 3/8 of an inch long, the motor would generally start easy and run well with good gas milage.

There are several reasons why a "weak," "cold" spark would produce the symptoms you observe. Because there is little difference between the engine performance at idle with #3 wire on or off, it is obvious that, while the spark plug may be firing in air, it is not firing hot enough (or what is more probable regularly enough) to ignite the mixture in that cylinder. Variations in compression pressure may allow the other three cylinders to fire with a spark that is too weak to work #3 which would almost certainly have the highest compression pressure of the lot. There may be an air leak in the manifold (check the gasket, and the manifold itself for any cracks, no matter how small) which is resulting in a leaner mixture feeding to #3. It takes a better spark to ignite a lean mixture than it does a rich one. A very small crack in either valve in #3 cylinder could be too small to really show up under the average compression test, but could dilute the mixture enough to make it hard to light with a weak spark. The same holds for the valve seats. #3 could be burning a tad more oil than the rest. Oil droplets in the mixture can make a cylinder much harder to light. A very small crack in the head or the block could be allowing a bit of water to get into the mixture, making it harder to light. Some of the symptoms will be more noticeable when the motor is cold than when it is warmed up. For example, a lean mixture will be easier to light after the motor is warmed. You should do all of your testing with a fully warmed up motor.

Once the motor speeds up, the generator is turning fast enough to produce appreciable output. The additional voltage supplied by the generator will create a spark that is "strong" and "hot" enough to properly ignite the mixture, which is why there is a loss of power when you pull the wire and drive at a higher speed. This is a bigger problem with 6 volt systems, as it takes a good, low resistance circuit to push enough current through the coil to give a good spark. Make sure that all of your connections are tight, all of the wires are good, etc. You may learn something if you use a piece of at least #14 gage wire and connect directly between the "ign" or "+" side of the coil and the positive terminal of your battery. If this clears up your problem, you will need to investigate the entire ignition circuit (wires, ignition switch, etc.) and find and cure the bad spots. Note that higher engine speeds tend to create a more uniform mixture in the cylinders, overcoming problems due to air leaks, etc.



QUESTION: My CJ-2A has a very small, knurled knob-looking thing just to the left of the throttle handle. I reached under the dash and it appears to be a switch of some kind by virture of the fact that there are wires going to it. Does anyone know what this is for?

ANSWER: Scrape away the layers of paint and you should find a small round lens in the center. This is the tell-tale light for the headlight high beams. You can unscrew the knurled outer housing to replace the small bulb inside.



QUESTION: Can someone walk me through the "start-circuit" on my wiring?

ANSWER: There should be a wire coming into the ignition switch from either the battery or a fuse block. This supplies 12V to the ignition switch. Coming from the ignition switch you should have 3 terminals: 1. Accessory power 2. Ignition Power 3. Start power

Let's discuss each of these one at time.

1. Accessory power, will run your radio and sometimes you gauges and heater.

2. Ignition power, will supply power through a voltage dropping resistor to the positive side of your coil while the key is turned on. This is not a good position to leave the key in when the engine is not running because if the engine was stopped with the points closed this will supply constant power to the coil. The coil is designed to turn on and off, not run constantly. It will overheat or burn out the points.

There are a number of reasons for the voltage dropping resistor but lets let it suffice to say that as you crank the engine the voltage of the battery will drop to around 7.5 minimum voltage and therefore the coil was designed to run on that voltage.

3. Starter power will provide 12v to the starter solenoid. When it engages it creates a path for high current to flow to the starter. It also provide a voltage boost line out to the + side of the coil. The starter motor draws a large amount of current and thus drops battery output from 12v to about 7.5v. The 7.5 going through the dropping resistor would drop to about 3.3v and would not be enough to start the engine. However the 7.5v supplied to the + side of the coil from the voltage boost line is enough to start. As soon as the engine starts, the ignition switch is released, the solenoid disengages, the starter stops, the voltage returns to 12v and the voltage boost line is removed.

To the best of my knowledge there should not be a negative output or input to the ignition switch. However, my truck was wired with the voltage boost coming back into my ignition switch as well.



QUESTION: How do I install an ammeter?

ANSWER: The AMMETER is simple to hook up, and most of the wiring may already be in place. Here's the way to hook it up:

I assume that you have the standard type of alternator that will putout about 60 amps maximum, and that you have only the average vehicle loads (lights, a radio, etc.) If you have a winch, you will probably benefit from heavier wire. Post here if you do, and I'll try to help. For a standard vehicle setup, you will need to wire your ammeter this way:

You should use at least a number 10 wire (again check the package)for all the connections leading to the ammeter. There will be two terminals on the back of the gauge. They may or may not have any markings on them. You cannot damage the meter if you happen to get the connections reversed, so that is not a problem.

You should run a heavy (#10) wire from one side of the ammeter to the positive post on your battery. Most of the time, this is done by running the wire to the terminal on the starter solenoid that has the battery connected to it. Note that this wire will cause some considerable fireworks if it comes into contact with any part of the body, so make sure that it is well insulated where it runs through any holes. I like to use a short piece of vacuum hose for protection where ever any wire passed through a hole. This should be the only wire connected to this post on the ammeter.

There should be two wires connected to the other post on the ammeter. One will run directly to the "Battery" terminal on the alternator. This should be at least a #10 wire.

There should be another wire connected to the same post on the ammeter as the wire running to the alternator. This wire is used to provide power for the lights and ignition switch. A #12 wire will do, but if you have enough #10 on hand, you might as well use it. The simplest way is to run a heavy (at least #12) wire from the ammeter to the "BAT" terminal on the ignition switch, then run another wire from the "BAT" terminal on the ignition switch to the "BAT" terminal on the headlight switch. Most headlight switches have a circuit breaker mounted on them that has the "BAT" terminal on it. You can run a #14 wire from the other side of the circuit breaker to the break light switch, and the turning signals if you have them.

The horn relay usually does not connect to the ammeter, but is instead connected to the battery.

After you get everything hooked up, turn on the headlights. The ammeter should swing to the "D" or "DISCHARGE" side. If it does not, simply reverse the wires on the ammeter to make it swing the other way.



QUESTION: I am installing a Ford alternator and external voltage regulator. How do I wire them?

ANSWER: The Ford ext volt reg has the following harness tabs:

F - This is connected to the "Field" terminal on the Alternator

I - This is connected to one side of the resistor on the firewall. [see below]

A - This is connected to the "Battery" terminal on the alternator.

S - This is connected to the "Stator" terminal on the alternator.

All of the above wires carry relatively little current. A #14 wire (check the package at the parts store) will be plenty heavy for these wires.


Ford Alternator has the following tabs:

Stator - This is connected to the "S" terminal on the voltage regulator.

Field - This is connected to the "F" terminal on the voltage regulator.

Battery - * see below

Ground - There should be a #14 wire from this connection to one of the mounting screws on the base of the voltage regulator.

You will need to make the following connections in addition to the above. The wires may already be in place, but you should check them to make sure the insulation is good and the connections are clean and tight:

From the other side of the resistor on the fire wall: Run a #14 gage wire to the "accessory" terminal on your ignition switch.

If your switch does not have an "accessory" terminal, use the one running to the ignition coil.

Do not connect to the terminal on the ignition switch that runs to the battery. You will drain your battery when the motor is not running if you do!



QUESTION: How can I convert my 6v volt regulator to a 12v?

ANSWER: I recently stumbled across an excellent write up on how to build 12V to 6V voltage regulators of different capacities. It's a top-notch article. Check it out at:

(the following link is now dead - if you know where it is email Ric@MightyMo.org)

Also see...



QUESTION: Where does the coil get it's power from?

ANSWER: In the modern vehicle, there is are two ways that are used to supply power to the coil. I guess I had better give a little background:

The old 6v. system used a coil that was designed to operate at the normal charging voltage of a generator supported system. This was about 7.4 volts. The coil would function properly with this voltage applied to it. Because many of the early vehicles had a mechanical pedal on the floorboard that actually engaged the starter motor to the ring gear on the flywheel (no Bendix unit) and simultaneously closed a mechanical switch mounted on The starter motor, most early cars and trucks use the following ignition circuit:

A wire runs from the battery to the ignition switch. Another wire runs from the ignition switch to the "BAT" terminal on the coil. That's it - pure and simple.

With the invention of the Bendix drive unit, it was no longer necessary to have a direct mechanical linkage to engage the starter. This meant that it was possible to have a solenoid (relay) mounted some place that could work the starter. This made it possible to start the motor by either a pushbutton on the dash or a special "start" position in the ignition switch. Because the system was still a six volt one, the coil connections remained the same.

In both cases, there is a real problem with a loss of voltage available to the coil when the motor is being cranked. Depending on lots of factors, it is possible for a six volt system to drop to as little as four volts during cranking. When cars started to switch to 12 volts, a good solution to this problem was available.

The spark coil in a "12 volt" system is designed to operate at about 8.5 to 9.0 volts! Most "12v" coils will get pretty hot, and burn out in a few miles if they are connected the same way the old 6v coils are. They all require a "ballast resistor" in series with the ignition switch. You can buy a "ballast resistor" at any parts store. The are made of a white to off-white ceramic material and have a wire wound element in a slot molded in the ceramic. Some parts people will call it a "coil resistor."

Here's how you do the basic hook up a 12 volt spark coil:

       |------(Ammeter)----(Ignition)-----(Ballast )-----(Spark)  
-------|-                  ( Switch )     (Resistor)     (Coil )
|       |
|       |

I mentioned that the advent of the 12 volt system allowed a solution to the problem of low available voltage during cranking. This is done by adding a separate circuit that supplies power directly to the coil from the battery during cranking. This power is taken from a special terminal on the starter solenoid. This terminal is designed to supply power directly from the battery whenever the solenoid is in crank mode. The connections look like this:

       |-\----(Ammeter)----(Ignition)-----(Ballast )-----(Spark)  
-------|- \         A      ( Switch )     (Resistor)    /(Coil )
|       |  \        |-----------|                      /
|Battery|   \       |  B|-----------------------------/
|       |    \      |   | 
---------     \--(Solenoid)---(Starter)
                              (Motor  )


A = Terminal on solenoid that goes to the ignition switch, and works the solenoid to start the motor. Note that this can have any one of several markings (a number, "S", and "start" are common).

B = Terminal on solenoid that supplies the "boost" power to the coil during crank. Again, the markings are varied (a number, "I", "C" and "coil" are common).

The wire from the solenoid connects to the same terminal on the coil as the wire from the ballast resistor.

Because you have ignition only during crank, it is almost a given that you are only getting the "boost" power from the solenoid, and there is an open in the regular ignition circuit.



QUESTION: My alternator does not kick in until I rev the engine. Sound normal?

ANSWER: Absolutely. If you will look under the hood of any alternator equipped car, you will notice that the pulley on the alternator is pretty small when compared to the pulley on the generator that was originally on your '2A. Also, the pulley on the crankshaft of an alternator equipped vehicle is about 1" larger in diameter than the pulley on your jeep. All this means that, for a given engine RPM, the alternator on a car designed for one is turning at a higher RPM than the one on your jeep would be. Alternators are designed to turn at about 3X the crank RPM - a typical setup would have the alternator turning about 8,000 - 9,000 RPM at highway speeds. This higher RPM is the main reason why alternators produce more power than a generator. They can turn at a high speed because they don't have the heavy windings in the rotating part (rotor), but rather in the frame (stator). A generator uses brushes and a commutator to rectify the inherent AC output, which requires that the heavy windings be on the rotor, plus the commutator bars. This limits the practical RPM for a generator.



QUESTION: When I go about 1/2 mile, engine shuts down. Wait 5 minutes, she will start again. Sounds like coil overheating?


Five possible sources of this behavior come to mind.

1. A defective coil. It could have an open winding situated so that, as long as the coil is cold it is touching and current can flow. When the coil heats up (they all do in normal operation), CTE causes the innards to move around, opening up the winding. When the coil cools down, the CTE reverses direction, moving the winding so the circuit is closed.

2. A defective capacitor inside the distributor. This use to be a major problem when automotive capacitors were made with transformer oil and paper. I have not had this problems for many years, but a bad capacitor was a real possibility as late as the early 60's.

3. A defective series dropping resistor. As in the case of the coil, it could have a broken wire that opens the circuit when the resistor heats up.

4. A defective ignition switch.

5. A fuel starvation problem [Check tank/line for blockage].

The next time your motor quits, leave the ignition switch on and measure the voltage at the coil terminals (both sides). This could tell us a lot...



QUESTION: The wires that actually are used to charge the battery, then, are running through the ammeter to get to from the alt to the battery then, is that correct?

ANSWER: Yes, that is correct. The customary way to install an automotive ammeter is to have it monitor the current flowing *from* or *to* the battery. The important thing is to not allow your battery to become discharged, or "rundown" as my father use to say. The ammeter will tell you whether or not power (current) is flowing into the battery or flowing from it.

You can tell a lot about the condition of a charging system *if* you know how to interpret what your ammeter is telling you. Since you are installing an alternator and its associated regulator, the ammeter should respond like this:

Ammeter Operation

After a large load (for example starting the motor): The ammeter should initially show a fairly high rate of charge immediately after the motor starts and attains enough RPM to let the alternator put out appreciable current. With most alternators, this happens at *roughly* *about* *approximately* (note my choice of words) 1800 RPM. At that speed, the alternator should be able to put out enough current to supply the connected load (ignition, lights, etc.) and also replace the energy used to start the car.

Due to the chemistry that is going on inside the battery, it will initially accept a goodly quantity of electrons while it replaces the chemistry that was depleted in cranking the motor. This process is not linear with time, and you should see a large ammeter reading right after the motor starts (assuming it's turning fast enough). The exact amount of current shown depends on a lot of factors like how easy your motor starts; the capacity and condition of the battery; the capacity of the alternator; the motor RPM-you get the picture. It is very hard to predict the actual current, but we can talk in general terms. The ammeter should initially show a good rate of charge.

This will diminish over time, and should become very close to zero after one to two minutes, perhaps less, probably remaining at a small positive value (the battery is charging slightly). It should stay that way for the rest of the time you are driving around. This is the state of a properly functioning charging system. The alternator/regulator combination is maintaining the correct voltage (14.5 to 14.7 volts) to hold the battery at the fully charged point, and is able to supply all of the power required to operate the vehicle (lights, motor, radio, etc. etc.). As long as you seethe ammeter swing to a good rate of charge then fall off to slightly above zero and stay there, your charging system is in good shape. Two common charging system problems are failure to produce enough power, and improper voltage regulator action.

Failure to Show Enough Power

The ammeter will not show a strong charge immediately after starting, and/or the needle will show discharge whenever a load is turned on (for example, the headlights). Either of these conditions are a warning that something is wrong in the charging system. It cannot produce enough electricity to replace the chemistry used in starting, and/or supply the demands of the various components. There are several possible problems. The most common ones include: 1. Defective voltage regulator; 2. Bad connections; 3. One or more parts has failed in the alternator - the brushes and the internal "diode bank" are the usual culprits; 4. A loose or broken fan belt!

Volt Reg Set Too High or Failed

This is not a common problem with the modern solid state regulators, but it use to happen fairly often with the old mechanical types. What happens is that the regulator is unable to control the output of the alternator, and it starts to overcharge the battery. This condition is diagnosed when the ammeter shows an unusually high initial charge rate and the needle fails to come almost to zero after driving for a while.



QUESTION: Is there any information on the 2A wiring harness from the factory?

ANSWER: Here are the serial number breakdowns for the CJ-2A wiring harnesses I am looking to find examples of. (Since he also wants to make up CJ-3A, CJ3-B and CJ-5 wiring harness, I'm sure he would like examples of those too. I don't know when the changes of these models occured though. The more examples the better to get a greater sampling. Here is your chance to help make sure accurate harnesses are available!)

Single wire assemblies:

Fuel Gauge to Fuel Tank Cable (All CJ-2As)
Ignition Coil to Ammeter Cable (All CJ-2As)
Ignition Switch to Fuel Gauge Cable (All CJ-2As)
Horn Button to Connector Cable (After Serial Number 178361)


Body Wiring Harness - Long (This is generally the wiring harness that comes from the light switch and other under-dash switches)

Serial Number 10001 to 47099
Serial Number 47100 to 51228
Serial Number 51229 to 75448
Serial Number 75449 to 97740
Serial Number 97741 to 116421
Serial Number 116422 to 178361
Serial Number 178362 to End of Production

Body Wiring Harness - right side (This is the wiring harness for the ignition coil, distributor, starter switch, ammeter to voltage regulator)

Serial Number 10001 to 46478
Serial Number 46479 to 50800
Serial Number 50801 to 50900
Serial Number 50901 to 51184
Serial Number 51185 to End of Production

Chassis Wiring Harness (This is the wiring harness for the stop lights and tail lights)

Serial Number 10001 to 51228
Serial Number 51229 to 75448
Serial Number 75449 to 219465
Serial Number 219465 to End of Production

Generator to Voltage Regulator Harness (All CJ-2As)

Headlight - Left - Harness (All CJ-2As)
Headlight - Right - Harness (All CJ-2As)

Parking Light - Left - Harness

Serial Number 10001 to 97740
Serial Number 97741 to End of Production

Battery to Starting Switch Cable (All CJ-2As)
Starting Switch to Starting Motor Cable (All CJ-2As)

Todd Paisley - CJML -------------------------------------


> Concerning the questions about removing and replacing a harness on a CJ2A: I recently went through the same process. I had already removed the seats and fuel tank. Once I removed the clutch and brake pedals, access was not too bad. Removal of the speedometer, like previously mentioned, gave a lot more room to work. All of the harness forward of the firewall came back through the 7/8" hole with no problem. Don't bother removing the wires from the light switch, high beam tell-tale light or ign switch/coil. Just undo them from the dash and remove them with all the wires attached.

I definately agree with the comment about not cutting if not absolutely needed. I was able to get the old, very decrepit harness out in one big piece. The only wires that needed to be actually unhooked under the dash were at the fuel gauge and ammeter. And possibly the dash illumination light, but mine was already broken.

I was able to then lay the old harness on a sheet of plywood, secure it between some nails, and build a nice duplicate over the original in the comfort of my shop. When some time later I installed it, with all the wire lengths exactly as before, I honestly spent less than an hour under the dash. The switches and coil, etc. were already connected, and just had to be secured to the dash. There was very little fumbling with individual connections required.

On a practical note, for working in the cold: I have a couple of clamp-on work lights, the kind with big reflectors like a large bowl. They use regular screw-in incadescent bulbs. I put floodlight-shaped heat lamps in them. Obviously use care for any combustibles around them, but they do a wonderful job of taking the chill away when working outside.



QUESTION: Can I use a 6v starter on a 12v system?

ANSWER: First of all, yes, the starter will work as is. Yes, it will get hot quicker, much hotter. Yes, it will work for a while if your motor is well-tuned and you don't have to grind on the starter. BUT there is a potentially *big* problem if the Bendix drive doesn't engage the ring gear on the flywheel. It's kind of complicated, but when an electric motor is running, the rotating armature (technically the "rotor") has electric current flowing through it which is proportional to the applied voltage and an opposing voltage called the "back EMF" that is generated in the windings by the fact that they are cutting the magnetic field produced by the field coils (the "stator"). A rotor will turn at the RPM required to create a back EMF that is equal to the applied voltage, taking into account the work being done by the rotor. Skipping all the physics, this happens at an RPM that is determined by several factors, the primary ones being the number of turns in the rotor, the current flowing though them, the work being done, and the strength of the magnetic field. If no work is being done, this RPM can be quite high. A properly designed motor can run unloaded at its rated voltage and the various parts of the rotor will be strong enough to withstand the centrifugal forces that are trying to make it fly apart.

If you double the applied voltage, the system will establish equilibrium at whatever RPM it takes to make the back EMF equal the applied voltage, again taking into account any work being done. If the starter is craning the motor, the load will keep the RPM low enough so there is no danger of things flying apart, which is why there is no problem *unless the Bendix doesn't engage the flywheel gear*. If this happens, the motor will run virtually unloaded (only friction and wind drag will supply the load), and the RPM will be quite high - possibly high enough so that the centrifugal force tears the armature apart!

Some of this can be mitigated by design choices. I think that the early jeep motors were what is called "shunt wound," which means that the fields are in parallel with the armature. If that's the case, the increased voltage will cause more current to pass through the field coils, which makes more magnetic field, which means that the armature doesn't have to turn as fast to reach equilibrium. Still, the equilibrium point may be at too high an RPM, and cause the armature to fail. The strength of the field is proportional to the current flowing through the coil, and the number of turns of wire in it. A field wound for 6 volts may not have sufficient number of turns to produce the necessary magnetic flux required to keep the armature RPM at a safe level, even with the increased voltage.

When I converted my jeep over to 12 volts, I took the starter motor down to a good "automotive electric shop" and had it completely gone through (new bearings, brushes, turn the commutator, etc.). When they had it apart, I had them rewind the fields so that they produce the proper magnetic field at 12 volts that will keep the unloaded RPM within safe limits. It will not keep the armature from overheating if I crank for too long, but it will keep it from flying apart if the bendix doesn't catch. They charged me $35 extra for rewinding the fields. I feel it was well worth it.

Take me back to the menu



QUESTION: Where can I get the ratchet mechanism for my emergency brake?

ANSWER: It is available thru Beachwood Canvas. There are two holes for a #10 size bolt equally spaced from the brake lever hole on the dash for attachment.

On my '46 2A, the support arm itself was welded to the backside of the dash. On mine it was snapped off and I had to make a whole new contraption.

According to one parts dealer, the support arm for the ratchet cannot be removed and re-installed. I understand the *ratchet itself* can be puchased through Beachwood Canvass. Unless, you are missing a smaller piece [the actual ratchet].

Mine was snapped off [fatigued back and forth maybe] to make room for an in-dash radio. I had to create one.

I used wood for the missing support bracket, as I do not have access to cutting and welding gear. I used a 2" wide, 1/2" thick wood strip. Cut a "U" shape in one end that would fit snug into the concave ebrake area on the backside of the dash. This wood strip then was fitted with a steel tube/pipe a shade bigger than the ebrake handle, making a sleeve for the handle. I then cut a notch in the sleeve, then put a pull-pin... [similar to the pin on a fire extingisher]. This acts like the ratchet as the handle has action against it when pulled. I then mounted the firewall end of the wood strip to the firewall. It is out of sight and works like a charm.

Emergency brake repair:

How my ebrake setup looked when I got it: [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\EBRKBAD.jpg] No bracket, no ratchet, no handle. [Backside pic].

See my new handle, hanging through the hole, [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\EBRKBAD2.jpg]. No bracket, no ratchet.

Created dash-to-firewall ratcheting bracket for ebrake system. [Homemade] [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\BAYDASH.JPG] See it through radio hole.

See the new homemade ebrake bracket [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\BAYDASH.JPG] attached to firewall.

See new [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\EBRKNEW2.JPG] homemade ebrake ratcheting bracket at ebrake hole. Ratchet is a mounted spring pin over a slotted pipe.

See what an [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\EBRKNEW2.JPG] original ratcheting ebrake looks like.

See how an [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\EBRKORG1.JPG] original bracket fits to firewall.

Installed [public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\ebrknew.jpg] emerg brake handle and cable to public_html\images\CJ2A-FAQ\EBRKCASE.JPG] housing. [10/15/98, $20 Handle, $35 cable, Willys Minn]



QUESION: Does any one know where to find a replacement emergency brake cable? This is for a '62 CJ5? I could probably fabricate one, but because it was completely missing when I bought my CJ, I really don't know where to start. I have the dash/firewall bracket and ratcheting handle, but no cable.

ANSWER: I got mine, new and nice, here for $35 dollars...

Gary or Louie
Farmington, MN

Take me back to the menu



QUESTION: Where can I read an excellent overview of my L-134 engine?

ANSWER: Off-Road.com has an excellent page on this at...




QUESTION: I've been told that the F head block can be used in place of the L head with some mods. Is this true?

ANSWER 1: The F-head is a different animal than the L-head. By most accounts the F-head won't fit in a low-hood flat fender without cutting a hole in the hood or putting on a body lift.

ANSWER 2: Using a carburetor from an early Ford Falcon (144cid engine) will provide clearance for the hood to close without cutting a hole in it. A low profile air cleaner is required though.



QUESTION: Where can I get replacement "horsehair" for around my radiator?

ANSWER: Matching material is not available from any source. I searched exhaustively during my restoration and came up with nothing. Beachwood Canvas sells some material that works and is the right color but isn't even close to the original appearance.



QUESTION: How do I get the head off my L-134?

ANSWER: Not sure on an L-head, but on an F-head there is a bolt under where the carb mounts which is the last (hidden head bolt) I couldn't figure out why the head on mine wouldn't come off until I noticed it.

I had to replace a couple head gaskets on my flathead when I had it in my jeep. You just have to pry on it with a pry bar or e screwdriver. They come off hard the first time get easier after that especially after the 2nd or 3rd. I finally figured out my prolem, why I was blowing head gaskets. When you go to put the studs back in make sure you put all of the studs in without nuts on them or do it even better way if you have the money and replace all of the studs and nuts. The problem I was having was that some of the nuts were frozen on the studs and the stud would bottom out in its threaded hole and the nut wouldn't go any further because it was frozen thus giving a false torque. What I did because I was in school and short on money is found the problem studs and replaced them with grade 8 bolts of the proper length and never had any problems after that.



QUESTION 1: What was the color of the engine and engine parts on the early jps?

ANSWER 1: The chassis, engine, air cleaner were all glossy black. They were not the flat black (or satin black) that other manufacturer's used. [Todd Paisley CJML]

QUESTION 2: Did this continue throught the fiftys with all jeeps (L and F head) or was it model specific i.e. CJ2A? (I've got a '54 3B and was just wondering).

ANSWER 2: I don't have any authoritative information on original undercarriage and engine parts paint on CJ-3B's, but I haven't seen much that would contradict the theory that it was generally glossy black. [Derek Redmond - CJML]



QUESTION: Does anyone know some slight modifications that may have been done at the dealership for more power?

ANSWER: The factory offered a high compression (7.0 vs. 6.4) cylinder head for high altitudes. That option could have been installed either at the factory or by a dealer. I don't know the horsepower boost offhand, nor how much to shave off a standard head to obtain the 7.0 compression ratio.

It's quite easy to calculate how much the head has to be shaved of or the block decked. Though caution has to taken to valve/head clearance. There are a lot of ways to check that to before working with the head. I do not know the clearence distance so.... Some percents of horsepower can be achived by smoothing the manifold intake ways and same thing in the block. Had been a lot more easy if you had modern engine with valves-in the head to work on.

The effect of the bored-out block is negligible, I can assure you. With the first rebuild of my L-head- it was sent out to one of those big engine rebuilders- came back with a tag on it, "Power-Pac". I didn't realize the implications until I tore into it, years later: .062" oversize (.022 over suggested max.). This last go around, I re-sleeved back to standard. And I have to tell you, *I* don't notice any difference.

I agree that the effect of any overbore would be negligible, if it was even noticeable. But what I did say is true. That it is the *easiest and safest* way to increase compression. Period. No representations that it would result in any real World or even theoretical power gains.

One more interesting (to me, anyway) thing is that an excessive overbore like yours probably decreased your power, rather than increased it. The weak link in any overbore scenario is the "no man's land" between cylinders where, in essence, twice the amount of material is being removed (the amount of the overbore on each side of that usually narrow to start with area).

Even though you can get nice, neat round holes and you can get the pistons to seal statically, once the block is up to operating temperature and the pistons are moving at whatever speed 4000 or 5000 rpm translates into, the thin wall between cylinders would deflect to the point where the rings couldn't seal the compression into the combustion chambers because the cylinders were no longer round.

A 283 overbored .060 (292) would always make more power than the same block overbored .125 (301). So we always had a surprise for the folks who engineered by the motto: "if some is good, more is better and too much must be just enough" . Especially considering you had to carry a certain weight for each inch of displacement.

There are also other ways to lose power by increasing your compression depending on how you do it. One way would be to dome the piston to the point where the sparkplug would ignite only the fuel on it's side of the mountainous dome and not propagate across to the other side, leaving that amount of fuel unburned and having contributed nothing to power. Another would be to increase the compression to the point where you had to back the ignition timing off to prevent detonation with the available fuel.

Even the aforementioned smoothing and polishing might cause a loss in power. Some turbulence in the intake charge is necessary to keep the fuel molecules suspended in the air intake. If none is present the heavier (than air) fuel has a tendency to fall out of the air stream and pool or puddle in low areas in the intake runners.

Matching intake manifolds to heads, once thought to be the greatest advance since sliced bread, can be overdone as it has been know for a long time now that appropriate mismatching is desirable, even necessary to create a "reversion dam" to prevent the intake charge from being pushed back out by exhaust gases in engines with long overlap cams.

Jeff Polidoro - CJML



QUESTION: By lightening the crank, wouldn' t it also result in a reciprocal loss, if minimal, of low end torque?

ANSWER: No, torque is a function of the length of the moment arm, in this case the stroke of the engine, not the weight of the moment arm. Lighter is always better, whether it's crank, pistons, valves, block, you name it. The only possible exception might be the mass of the flywheel. There are 2 opinions but I favor the lighter ones and the resulting responsiveness.

Jeff Polidoro - CJML



QESTION: My engine has been rebuilt, what can I do to pre-lubricate it prior to starting it?

ANSWER I appreciate not every owner will have a spare oil pump but for those who do have access to one here is a tip.

Temporarily install an oil pump that has had the teeth machined [or filed] off the driven gear. Removing the teeth will allow the pump to spin when driven by an electric drill via a shaft inserted in the distributor hole. The shaft can be gutted from an old distributor or made from metal bar simulating the oil pump drive tang. It doesn't even have to be a good condition oil pump as we are not concerned about maintaining flow/pressure once the engine is warmed  up and revving its heart out. Once the teeth are removed it doesn't matter if it is a 1933 or 1960 oil pump. Just make sure it is clean inside and out with no debris likely to be dislodged. Use an old gasket or make a temp one from thick paper and bolt the old pump up. If worried about a slight oil leak just wrap a rag around the pump, it is a temporary installation after all. Works a treat for engines that have been sitting a long time since rebuild or since the last startup.

Paint this priming pump a distinctive colour and mark it so it can not be mistaken for a proper oil pump when bolted to the block.

This is the most effective method of priming oil into the engine through the oil passages it is meant to flow through. It can also be used to verify flow into the bypass oil filter, oil out of the timing gear jet [with timing cover removed], flow past each main bearing and rod cap [with the sump removed and oil fed to pump via hose dipped in oil bottle, flow to valve gear of F134/161 as well as to verify the oil gauge or idiot light works.

L134 Ted - WT



QUESTION: Does anyone have knowledge or opinion on Slick 50 and some of these other oil additives I am thinkin' about putting one or another in my 2A to enhance engine life?

ANSWER 1: [From various areas of opinion]: One of the best products I've used. Highly recommended.

ANSWER 2: My opinion, based upon nothing, is that the best thing you can do is run a quality oil and changed at reasonable intervals. The definition of 'quality oil' and 'reasonable intervals' are left to the reader. Everything that I've seen suggests that it is almost impossible to execute a well designed experiment to determine what these are given the variability and time involved. Dyno juice has been run for years and there's plenty of older rigs with well over 100k on them. My Civic (see the .sig below) has been completely abused all it's life (I run Castrol GTX and change it when I get around to it) and continues to run very well. There are some compelling reasons to run synthetics, however you can change to oil twice as often for the money with petrol oil.

As for the additives, et al. My basic take is that anyone who uses marketing techniques composed of outrageous 'get quick rich' type claims and sensational video footage in the auto part super stores are looking for suckers. If their results are that night-and-day of a difference I'd fully expect Castrol, Mobile, etc to be on board not to mention GM, Ford, BMW, Mercedes, adnosium. Believing that to not be the case I've concluded that it's a smoke screen. It probably won't hurt but I'd be absolutely blown away if you could convince me that you've found it to be of any help.

My motorcycle has one known flaw in that the top end oiling is a bit weak and thus the oil thread has been beaten into the ground on that mail list. We've even a few petroleum chemists. Being a high performance engine I run synthetics and change the oil frequently, the best technique I know. All that being said, there are differences in oil and some of the learned members of that list do use a particular zinc based (I think) additive to help the oil designed for cars function better in the bike (where the engine and tranny use the same oil) instead of paying through the nose $5+ a quart for Honda Motorcycle oil.

In short: spend the money on another filter and change your oil more often.

ANSWER 3: Ford, GM, BMW, Castrol, etc., etc., (my opinion) are not going to jump on the band wagon for a great new product that last hundreds of thousands of miles and makes your engine last forever. They WANT you to buy products and parts FREQUENTLY. That's big money. Other than that I think you hit it on the head. I've used additives and synthetics and could tell no difference, except in the wallet.

ANSWER 4: The good one I heard was about STP. A mechanic I worked with told me that he had seen what it did: ran down the side of the filler tube, the pan, and lay in a puddle in the bottom.

ANSWER 5: I can't tell you about Slick 50 additives but, for what it's worth, I am not a believer in the additives. I do however, believe in the virtues of synthetic oil. I use it almost exclusively in all my IC engines. One warning though. If your engine already uses oil, don't switch to synthetics. Also, you can't break an engine in with synthetic oil. My Ford (sorry, I got a good deal) F 150 is living proof after 120,000 and it still does not use any oil to speak of.

ANSWER 6: Slick 50. No way it's going to increase your power. So folks swear by it, others say it's a waste of money. I've put it my Geo Metro and after 120,000 miles it's still running fine. Due to Slick 50? Dunno.

Want more horsepower? JC Whitney has a Solex replacement carb. Although I hesitate to say it will give you more HP, it can make for smoother running and starting. You can throw on a turbocharger (from a Ford 2.3L) but you must modify your exhaust manifold. The L-head problem is that it's a poor breather. Of course you could always throw in a V-6.

ANSWER 7: My opinion is that I would not use these additives if I do not know the history of the engine. Oil 50 or so years ago was poor and had little if any detergents in it. Over the years the grades of oil have improved greatly. What I am trying to say I would not use these because of their detergents, years ago there may had been deposits of dirt left in there and if you use modern oil with the best cleaning power you could break some of the deposits loose and could block up oil passages thus leading to premature engine failure by under lubrication. This is especially true about synthetic oils. If you know the history of the engine and it has been rebuilt then by all means use these additives if you feel so incline.

ANSWER 8: Save your money and time and stick to the important stuff like regular oil & filter changes, chassis lube, coolant and brake fluid flush, keeping trans, xfer, and knuckle lube topped off. And you should oil the wick on the distributor and keep some oil in the bottom of the air cleaner. If you really want your flathead to last forever you can drop the oil pan every year and wipe out the mud with a rag.

Plenty of work to do to keep a 2a in top shape without having to run voodoo chemicals through it.

ANSWER 9: I've used Tufoil in my old cars for years. It really seems to make things smoother and quieter. Added with each ol change. avail at auto parts store or call Fluoramics 800-922-0075

ANSWER 10: I'm not sure about Slick 50, but if you want the same thing much cheaper (ten bucks) use the Fram Double Duty that has the teflon in it. As for oil, when I lived up by the artic circle I left a bottle of Penzoil 10-30 and a bottle of Mobil 1, 5-50 out overnight. In the morning with temperature at around 50 below, the Penzoil was a solid block, but the Mobil 1 poured with no problem. Those of us that ran synthetics in our ATV's were the only ones running when the weather really got cold. My 85 Nissan with 114K miles burns no oil ever. I started using Mobil 1 in it after about 12K miles. I run nothing but Mobile 1 in my six autos ranging from 1947 to 1997, the four banger in my rice rocket to the fuel injected 460 in my motor home. It stays "thicker" when it's hot and "thinner" when it's cold. Up here they even sell Mobil 1, 0 weight.



QUESTION: What was the advantage of the F Head over the L Head? Why did they change engines on the 3B?

ANSWER: Horsepower. Raw, unadulterated, snap-your-head-back horsepower. A screamin' 72 of 'em. Primarily at higher RPM. The F-head design allows the cylinders to fill more rapidly with fuel-air mixture which improves the top end.



QUESTION: How can I remove and replace my starter bushing [in the bell housing]?

ANSWER: There are several ways to skin the same cat. I know two, Snap On makes a 14 piece puller set, basically it is a slide hammer. It has a attachment that will fit inside bushing and tighten against the sides. you then just slide hammer. The other is to twist a bolt or easy-out into bushing. hold the bolt with pliers then tap bushing out with hammer. It is a tight fit may take some time. Oh yeah, if the bushing has no back, when the bolt is screwed all the way and begins to strike bellhousing, the bushing will be forced out.

It's really easy to get out. Sometimes there is a hole behind it (in the bell housing), in which case you can push it out using a bronze drift. If there's no hole you can extract it by using a small sliding hammer or bush extractor. Once it is out you then have the OD measurement and the shaft on the starter will give you the ID measurement. Putting it in: A good auto sparky will either find you the correct bronze bush or he will turn one up for you. Be sure that you soak the bronze bush for 24 hours in about 30 grade oil, then carefully reinsert it using a bronze drift. Now slide your starter in. If your earthing is good, your starter is good and the new bush doesn't allow any sideways "lash", the little girl will start right up.


[Editor's note: There is a disagreement on the following two questions/answers]


QUESTION: Do these little jeep engines lack oil when they idle.

ANSWER: No. There is documented evidence of Jeep engines being used as stationary engines in power plants, as saw mill motors, to drive household generators (thousands of them in the Australian Outback cattle stations), boat motors and I could go on and on. *Most * of these engines spend countless hours idling. Furthermore, the difference between idling pressure and running pressure (in normal use - not climbing mountains or getting over sand dunes) is not very great. Hydraulic mechanics tells any fool that. If you would like to run Taz for long periods at idle - do so. The only thing that may be better for him is to turn the idle screw up so he idles at about 800rpm. Not for the oil flow but for good coolant flow and correct engine temp control by ensuring that the coolant flows and the fan blows.



QUESTION: Why might I consider mounting a spin-on oil filter in place of my stock filter?

ANSWER: The original oil filter will starve the main bearing and first rod bearing at idle will the oil pressure drops low. I have designed a system that uses a spin on filter and a flow control valve to regulate the flow at idle. [Answer in progress 01-Feb-99]



QUESTION: Is my stock canister oil filter sufficient?

ANSWER: I've used (and continue to use) canister type oil filters in some of the dustiest and sandiest country you'll ever wish to see. Never had a problem. I drive (and escort) MB's, GPW's, CJ2A's, CJ3B's over hot, arid and remote country, in trips that can take the convoy up to three weeks and cover 5000 miles. Never a problem. I've used a roll of toilet paper as a filter when I've been stuck without the cartridge. Never a problem. I only change the oil every 2500 miles in that type of driving and in normal driving I change oil at about 5000 miles. Never burnt a bearing or cooked a crankshaft. Provided the oil galleries are clean and the oil is a good product, the physics of hydraulic mechanics will tell you that the oil pressure will be constant throughout the whole flow area. As you probably know, the canister system was used in numerous vehicles (Chrysler, GM, and trucks) way up to the end of the 60's. Never heard of a starvation problem. Early Landcruisers (with the copy of the Chev 6 engine in them). I'm talking about FJ40's and earlier, had canister oil filters. No problems that I heard of. Upon reflection, I do know of someone who had an oil feed problem (now that I recall) but he was stupid and had used Silastic as a gasket sealer and the stuff was stuck in the galleries. But that shouldn't count.



QUESTION: How can low oil pressure effect bearings?

ANSWER: The low oil pressure situation is dependant on two major things: 1) How old the engine bearing and oil pump are. The older, the lower the pressure the pump will produce at idle. At idle the oil going to the front main bearing is siphoned off to the oil filter, the front rod bearing, and the timing gear spray nozzle. 2) If the spray nozzle to the timing gear is the larger of two sizes you are risking burning the rod bearing. I don't remember the diameter or the hole in the spray nozzle but it is listed in the Willys repair manual that we have. It says in the book that if the front rod bearing is burning up the replace the spray nozzle with the smaller diameter.

The Willys place I purchase parts from said that they remove the original filters and change the oil when it gets cloudy looking to prevent a chance of burning the rod bearing.



QUESTION 1: I heard the 2A had an option handcrank. Is that true?

ANSWER 1: It was a two piece handle and shaft with adapter on the crankshaft end... Do you have the special nut on the end of your crankshaft ? You know what it looks like.... Now for the other item I know .. Continental made the engines for the MB, AND Allis Chalmers tractors back in those days... I am told that an Old Tractor graveyard that has Allis Chalmers tractors will probably have the crank and Nut that goes on the crank shaft of the engine.... check it out.

QUESTION 2: Does anyone know of a good source for hand crank starters and/or other nifty original options for CJ-2As.

ANSWER 2: [Answer in progress 01-Feb-99]



QUESTION: My motor stalled after running rough. The oil pressure was high and when I checked the dipstick, it was full of crud. What could this mean?

My suggestions: After it sits for a while (measured in hours) the oil and water emulsion should separate. When you drain the oil, you should get both water and oil out. Pulling the head is relatively easy on an old Jeep (as opposed to the modern engines I sometimes find myself struggling with). A new head gasket is about $15 - $20 (as opposed to the complete gasket set I am awaiting from NAPA for an Isuzu Trooper 4 cyl Diesel for $185!).

This will be OK as long as the head studs don't break off. I remember trying to take the flat head off of my L-134. I broke 4 of the studs.

Soak the nuts good and brush off any dirt and grime from the threads. If you do break some, use a stud puller after you gert the head off. I was able to remove 3 of my broken studs without drilling. If you are going to wait for any length of time to pull the head, remove the spark plugs and poor a sizable amount of oil down each cylinder. This is much harder to do on a flat head because the spark plug does not sit directly over the cylender. Cover the top of the engine with an old towel, leave the plugs out and crank the engine over a few times by hand. This will make for an oily rag but it should help keep any water from rusting up the cylinders.

My first attempt would be to confirm that it is just water in the oil, not any metal flakes; then pull the head to see if that is the source of the water (pray that it is, 'cause the other possibility is a cracked block); then put on a new headgasket and replace the head; fill it with cheap oil and start it up. This whole fix shouldn't take more than two or three hours. It will either run OK (in which case you are back on the road), or other problems will become evident.

Don't run the engine more than a few minutes with the cheap oil. Not that running on cheap oil is a problem bu,t you need to change it out to remove the water and "mud" from the system. I have seen it take 2 oil changes to get that junk out of an engine. Even them you will traces of the "mud" around the dip stick for a few weeks.

If you are in the mood to know more, pull the oil pan an check the rod and crank bearings by dropping one cap at a time. They would be the most likely place to find damage due to oil starvation. If they look damaged, you can change the bearings from underneath without pulling engine. You could still be back on the road with a day two of work and less than $100.



QUESTION: I had heard this before: that 134 L-heads had been sold to be used on various pieces of field equipment; pumps, generators, etc. Now, a notice on a BB discussion about their use on welders, has me wondering. I suppose that it would have been impossible for the Willys plant to track which engines were sold as replacements in a vehicle and which weren't - unless the orders were sizable, and their destinations known. Are any of these suitable for a non-original engine jeep restoration job? Do they have the "Willys"-, or some other head? Were they taken right off the line, with the same sequential serial numbers? In short, what is known about them? [Cary Reed - CJML]





QUESTION: I am rebuilding an L-134. Should I go with cast or forged pistons? Prices?

ANSWER: The cast pistons will work fine as long as you keep it timed correctly and don't try to hot rod it. I've never seen a cast piston break under ordinary driving conditions.

There is really no need to run the more expensive forged pistons in a stock motor, and maybe some reasons not to. The forged pistons are stronger and can put up with a little more detonation and are great for a high horsepower rebuild. As for a stock engine, the installation of forged pistons requires the holes to be bored out a little larger than they would be for cast pistons (forged pistons expand more) this causes more piston slap on cold startups and requires a little more care on your part to warm engine up completely before hot rodding it. Both styles will work well, just consider how you will be using your engine and keep costs in mind.

Call Carl Walck's Four Wheel Drive. 610-852-3110. Great prices and shipping time. My price list from him has .020 F-134 pistons at $26.31. Ring set is $29.46.



QUESTION: How can I remove a broken stud [in the engine]?

ANSWER: I broke off an exhaust manifold stud leaving a piece in the block. It was the rear stud, about 1" from the firewall. I drilled a hole in it and used a screw extractor. BAD RESULTS! It broke also, leaving tool steel in the hole. About $75 worth of carbide drill bits later, I inserted a helicoil and a new stud.

I would recommend just drilling the stud out and inserting the helicoil, skipping the screw extractor and carbide bits. I hope your experience is more pleasant (and cheaper).

The thing that I hope everyone out there learned from this is that screw extractors don't.

If you are lucky enough to be the one that broke off the stud, then you should have some idea about how much torque was required to do it. If you were really leaning on it, or it was actually getting TIGHTER as you unscrewed, keep that in mind as you reach for the screw extractor. Remember the extractor will have to apply MORE torque than you did when you broke it. That is rarely possible.

If it broke because you bent it, or because you were trying to straighten it, that's different, and an E-Z out has a chance. I, too spent $75.00 in carbide removing a screw extractor. Once the extractor is out, the stud removal goes pretty easy. (You know the drill...).

0. Grind the broken stud flat and square if possible.
1. Center punch the broken stud in the exact center.
2. Pilot drill the broken stud clear through.
3. Follow with the correct size tap drill. (Left hand if you have it)
4. Tap with a 2 flute plug tap.
5. Finish with a bottom tap.

Use lots of cutting fluid, or motor oil while drilling. Go slow, and stay square.

Another (more time consuming) option is to drill the stud with a small enough bit that you don't hit the block or threads. Take a die grinder with a skinny side cutting bit, and carefully grind away the stud from the inside, when you get to the threads, peel it out with a sharp pointed tool (I used the little pointy tools that comes with those small screwdriver sets). Somebody on the list suggested this a while ago and I had a chance to try it out - it worked very well, barely knicked the threads and it took about 2 hours.

Left hand drill bits are worth the investment in this case. You use them in reverse and a lot of the time they will catch and back the broken bolt/stud out for you. Soak the broken stud a couple a days w/ PB Blaster or some other penetrant, then start with the smallest left hand drill. Keep increasing in size until the bolt grabs and screws out or until you'v e almost exposed the threads. Then you have a choice, either gently try an E-Z out or go ahead and overdrill and put in a heli coil. My own experience has been that 60 to 75 % of the time the left hand drill bits grab and back the bolt out.

A couple of years ago I found a local guy that had a "disintegrater" tool. For $50.00 (less than we can spend on broken tools) he removed the debris and supplied a new stud.

Here are a couple of tips I've learned about broken studs that might help:

1) When using easy-outs, grind a groove around the shank just below where the wrench grabs it. The depth of the groove is trial and error. You are making a safety valve, so to speak, so the easy-out will break there first, leaving some material to grip to pull it out.

2) Use a two-handed tap wrench if there is room. This keeps you from applying any side load, which is often what breaks the easy-out. I realize this might not always be possible, like up next to the firewall. In that situation, I've used various scraps of wood, etc. to rest the easy-out against, to prevent side-load.

Years ago, I remember reading of a certain type of acid that only attacked a certain component in the steel in easy-outs and taps. It supposedly left the surrounding metal alone.

[When removing my stuck stud] I opted for some reverse cut bits by Helicoil, sort of a drill bit and EZout combination. Sixty bucks for 4 of the bits. The EZout part didn't work too well, but the bit cut the broken stud like it was butter. I wound up drilling out the stud and retapping the hole, worked like a charm.

I took the head off my 1947 L Head, and broke 5 bolts in the process. Not sure what to do now, (wanted to get it going again is used for daily transportation to work). I started digging through my pile of small block Chevy parts, and found that the outside 4 Head bolts on a small block are an exact match for the L Head bolts (minus the nut on top that rusts on). So after cleaning out the threads in the block and applying a little Teflon sealer to the threads the head was back on and she was running again. Didn't have enough bolts to replace all the head bolts but will at a later time. I feel these are a superior bolt. Have taken heads off dozens of Chevys never broke one bolt.

Here's something that worked pretty well for me for taking out a broken EZ-Out. I put some carbide dental drilling tips I bought at a garage sale in my Dremel tool. Used lots of WD-40 and a few tips but they cut very precisely. The best way to get the EZ-Out out is to cut away at the soft metal of the original stud.



QUESTION: Why do L-Head studs break so easily?

ANSWER: Here are some reasons I believe that the L-head bolts break:

1. Corrosion- Far less was known about metallurgy in 1947. The quality of the steel in a modern bolt is far superior. Modern machine bolts are less susceptible to corrosion.

2. Stress- With V-8 the only time a head bolt is retorqued is when the valve cover is removed and usually not even then. With the L-head, the bolts are on top of the head and fully exposed. I know my dad used to make a ritual of retightening the bolts on the top of the engine every spring (Just in case one came loose). And if you blew a head gasket the first thing to try was retightening the bolts.

Do to stretch/stress, it is a good idea to change the bolts at least every other time you replace the head gasket. Since this usually isn't practical it usually isn't done. If the head bolts are grade 5 and you replace them with grade 8 I believe there are some things to consider. Unfortunately my knowledge of shear strength and such is very limited so I'm hoping someone else will help with that. I do believe that a grade 8 bolt is more likely to distort the block threads when torqued than a grade 5.

If the original bolts where grade 8 then I see no reason to not use upgraded bolts.



QUESTION: How do you tell the difference between a Buick V6 225 and a 231?


*If the exhaust manifold on the driver's side exits and slopes forward then it is a 225 (or at least a 225 ex. manifold). This slope was to get around the steering mechanism in the cj5 and jeepster.

*If the exhaust manifolds exit as full size tubes (the size of normal headers) and are a welded assembly they are 225 exh. manifolds. If they are cast and appear flat (so as to give more clearance, i.e. they sit closer to the side of the engine) they are 231 manifolds. I believe all years of exh. manifolds, 225231, are interchangeable.

*If the intake manifold is stamped 1-6-5-4-3-2 it is an odd-fire.

*If you see dauntless stickers it is a 225.

*If you see oil bath air cleaner it is a 225.

*After mid 1977 all 231's were even fire, before that from 1974 the 231's were odd-fire. So if you have the year of the engine that might help you determine what it is.

* Both of my 225's have the "smog tubes" and my OF 231 (1975) takes big plugs.

* My 68 CJ is definitely original and the smog tubes in the heads are NOT regular pipe thread they are 1/4 in size but have 1/2 pipe thread, very coarse. It also has large plugs.

About the flywheels: I have seen 2 flywheels on 225 v6's. the heavy one (55 lb.) was stock on manual transmission 225's. The lighter one is from 225's with the turbo-hydromatic transmission. The heavy flywheel is preferred for several reasons including sustaining torque at low rpm's (rockcrawling requirement).


Quick Reference for Identification: Buick/Kaiser Jeep Odd-fire 225


225 V-6 Block casting numbers:





991503 (or 981503, the two 9's may be a typo, still researching this.)

From my present info, these are all the 225 v-6 block casting numbers.

Intake casting numbers:

1 barrel : 1381552

2 barrel : 1378704

- there may be others...

225 v-6 engine id codes: Buick special 64-67 (1 and 2 barrel)

1964 = KH [between branches of right exhaust manifold]

1965 = LH [engine number on the right front face of the crankcase, just below cylinder head] 1966 = MH [as '65 above] 1967 = NH [as '65 above]...so the codes are either on the side or front of the block just under the cylinder head. (I have heard rumors of a few engines produced in '63).

All are listed as 9.0-1 comp. ratio. The engine codes seem to indicate that the first letter is the engine year, while the second letter is the comp ratio (9.0-1). The two letters together identify this engine as a 225 V-6, as the same year letter was used by Buick for all engine types '64-'71 (v-6, v-8) but the second comp ratio code letter varied between different engine types with the same comp ratio (i.e., a '64 V-6 comp ratio 9.0-1 is a"KH", while a '64 300 V-8 comp ratio 9.0-1 is a "KL").

Sometime '65 to '67, Kaiser Jeep bought the V-6 from Buick. This could have been due to the success of the 'Rover Defender using the earlier Buick "Fireball" 198 V-6, as Willys Jeep had been known to be aggressive in export sales, and I believe it was Kaiser's intent to carry on this sales policy.

From "Service Manual Jeep Universal Series"

"The engine code number shown in Fig A-4 is provided to identify the Dauntless V6-225 engine. The meaning of the coded letters and numbers that are stamped on the right front face of the crankcase, just below the rocker arm cover, between exhaust manifold ports, is given below:

Letter to designate market: M-Military, E-Export, D-Domestic

Letter to designate year Built: N-1967, P-1968, R-1969, S-1970, T-1971

Letter to designate Engine Compression Ratio: H-V6-225 9.0 to 1 C.R.

(2bbl carb) Y-V6-225 9.0 to 1 Marine (Low Profile) (2 bbl carb)

Z-V6-225 9.0 to 1 Marine (High Profile) 2bbl carb K V6-225 7.6 to 1

(2bbl carb) L V6-225 7.4 to 1 (2bbl carb)

The next three numbers are then the day of the year noted in the second position.""

In 1965, some Jeep V-6's are listed as coded "KLH" (and maybe '64 or '66 engines as well, still trying to research this).

Sometime '71 to '74 Buick bought the 225 V-6 back from AMC Jeep and rebored to 231 cu in. The engine stayed odd-fire until sometime in early or mid '77, when the engine was changed to even-fire by revising the crank throws (and other modifications). The odd-fire V-6 was gone forever.

I have no info of Buick using the "new" V-6 in '74; first use seems to be in the '75 models. I haven't seen any info that shows these engines in production for '72, '73, or '74 (of any firing order or displacement). All Buick 231 block casting numbers from my info begin with the numbers 124, 125, 126, or 255.

There are after-market intake manifolds available for the 225 V-6. Two are the Weiand four barrel intake part #7541 and the Offenhauser 360. Even-fire 231 intakes have been said to work if you use a '78 or older intake gasket. Be advised that a four barrel upgrade may cost some low-end horsepower. Engine parts are said to be available from Kenne-Bell and Kanton Auto Parts, among others. Information on both companies is available via the Internet.



QUESTION: Does anyone have the casting numbers for the Buick V6 block? I received additional info about the V6, it stated that the V6 was first mfg. in '62 and '63 as a 198 CID and that the bellhousing had rounded bolt pattern and the clutch was recessed in the flywheel. Does anyone have any supporting info?

ANSWER: I used to have one of these in my 2A for a number of years. The 198 will actually bolt directly to the T-90 but it sits to far back so you must use the adapter. You also must use the 225 complete oil pump. The relief valve is different and will pop the filter like a balloon. You really don't want this engine as it is really difficult to get parts for.

The 225 cylinder bore size standard is 3 3/4". The 198 is 3 5/8". So unless the 198 cylinder has been bored 125 thousanths oversize (ye gads! is my math right? 3.750-3.625=.125) then it must follow that a cylinder that measures that much less than 3 3/4" can't be a 225. For further reference, bore on a 231 is 3.800", bore on the late '70's 196 is 3 1/2" AND i have block casting numbers on the 196 beginning with 125 or 126 listed (like the 231) but this part we already covered. I believe the 198 had a 6 digit ID number or two stamped in the crankcase, probally in the traditional places just under front/side head mount areas. So measure the cylinder, that's the ticket! And find any stamped numbers.

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QUESTION: My jp sat in some weeds for about 10 years before I got it. It runs like a top but the gas tank had trash in it. I cleaned it out and now no fuel will come out of the tank. I disconnected the fuel line from the tank and slid a wire in the tank, but it would only go about an inch. Is there any way to fix it with out having to replace the tank?

ANSWER: I have found that a few pounds of air pressure will clean out

most of the gunk. You may have to have the tank professionally

cleaned at a radiator shop. Cost is about $30.

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QUESTION: I need to replace the manifold gasket, the exhaust to manifold donut and the carb to manifold gasket. I remember my grandfather soaking a gasket in hot water for a couple hours and then letting it dry for a few days and reusing it. Anyone ever try this?




QUESTION: In the past, I remember some conversation on replacing the Willys frame with a Chevy or other frame. I want to upgrade my stock rear end, front suspension and brakes. It might be more efficient and cost effective to put my Wagon body on a different frame. I know this is treason to some of you, sorry. Any comments? Jerry Stoper (AR) 47 Wagon.

ANSWER: I'm doing quite a few mods myself and I've chosen to keep the frame. It was simply easier for me to acquire the wee bits separately and modify things as needed rather than trying to find arig where everything would be the same ballpark size and move the body mounts (minimum) or whatever else (shorten/lengthen frame, etc). Finding a rig that has the options you want that also fits might be a challenge, though it's been done I'm sure. Mostly I suppose I was limiting myself because I didn't have the cash to buy a donor vehicle nor did I want it lying around long. I'd also add that though I'm going with a Chevy power-plant/tranny I wanted Dana axles rather than GM Corporate (C-clip design) which further limits the options.

The only changes I'll be making to my frame (so far) that I can think of are: Motor mounts Spring hangers Shock mounts (probably, not sure yet)Tranny/xfer crossmember (to include front end of anti-wrap bar)

This is with these mods (among others):

D44 front (shortened, from a Chevy)

D60 rear (shortened, from a Ford)

Chevy V8

SM420 tranny

SOA w/ new springs and anti-wrap

If you were going to use the complete chassis as is it would make sense. If you're doing other mods then I'd keep your frame (assuming it's solid) and make the changes you need (which shouldn't be too many).

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QUESTION: Does anybody know where I could find a voltage gauge for my 6v system? There are lots of them for 12v systems.

ANSWER: Try NAPA, they have a large selection in their catalog. If they don't have one, try a farm supply house. Tractors are often 6V.


QUESTION: Does anyone know the original ring color of CJ2A gauges? Were they chromed or painted?

ANSWER: Gloss Black.

Todd Paisley - CJML



QUESTION: If I change from 6V to 12V, do I need different gauges? Do I need a different fuel gauge sending unit?

ANSWER: The gauges will all work except for the fuel gauge. The sending unit in the tank doesn't care, but you either need a new 12V fuel gauge or a 12-6 volt converter for the existing gauge.

Same here. Mine works fine with 12V just as it did with 6V (i.e., still to damned jumpy and sensitive to vibration). I think it might be more important to change the gauge or adapt it if it has a light in it. In my 2A, that's not a problem. All I had to do was to replace the one hooded dash light with an equivalent 12V bulb.

I changed to twelve volt and never messed with the gauges and it still works fine.

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QUESTION: What were the original seat covers made of 2As? Vinyl or canvass?

ANSWER: It was an oilcloth type material, typical of its day, neither canvas nor vinyl. Most reproductions use vinyl, which is closer than canvas.

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QUESTION: My jp has enlarged spring pivot points. What should I do?

ANSWER 1: My experience is as a machinist, not a welder. With that in mind, two ways. One, get the centerline measurements off of a good bracket, and lay out and center-punch your pilot for the re-drill. Or two, I'm sure a welder has a trick or two up his sleeve, like using a rod of non-ferrous material to clamp in place and weld around.

The location is not critical: if you get it within an eighth of an inch, I would think it would be fine. More important would be that it is square to the frame. (If you have a drill press, drill yourself a drill jig - a block drilled through straight,so you can clamp it to the bracket and drill straight.)

ANSWER 2: Get out your oxy. Cut off the shackle brackets. Finish the job with a good grinder. Buy new shackle brackets. Re-weld them back on. Do it with an arc welder.



QUESTION: Can anybody tell me of any place I can get cheap but good stock wrangler springs. I want to put them on my 47 CJ 2A?

ANSWER: I would suggest checking with a 4X4 shop that installs aftermarket springs. Most of the shops around here (Denver) have a pile of stock springs that were replaced with lift springs. You should be able to get them cheap. I have purchased a new set of 1" lift spring for a 49 CJ3A by Softride for $245 plus shipping.

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QUESTION: Any advise on using a tierod steering rod setup on a 46 cj? I have it in my mind to use a knuckle to knuckle rod and separate steering rod, either with the stock steering or a Saginaw conversion. The only major problem seems to be that the tie rod and steering rod are going to have to share a common bolt hole on the knuckle. My stock tie rods were all trashed so I have to replace it anyway. Anybody done this?

ANSWER: You need a tie rod that goes from knuckle to knuckle. The drag link will connect from the steering box (or bell crank) to the right side knuckle. The most common way is to use a ride side tie rod end that has a hole in it, so it actually connects to the tie rod end not the knuckle. AA sells this tie rod end but it is actually a factory piece, it was used on the 60's Commandos. The better way, at least I think so, is to use a ride side knuckle from a dana 25/27 from a truck or wagon. These have two holes in the knuckle, one for the tie rod and one for the drag link. Even the new style wagons up until '71 I think used the d27 front axle with this knuckle, not to hard to find in a scrap yard. This is the way all of the CJ's from '72 on up were set up with the dana 30.

With the size tires you're planning, go with Saginaw steering. Also I'd go to 8" wheels to keep the tires from rubbing the frame up front when you turn and the inner wheelhouse in the back when twisted up. With 7" wheels I think you'd need custom offset.



QUESTION: My steering is loose. How can I correct that at the knuckle?

ANSWER: The steering knuckles themselves are simple to rebuild, just a little nasty since they're packed with grease. The only new parts you need are the king pin bearings (top and bottom), a set of shims if you don't have them, and a new gasket for the knuckle. While you're in there its also a good time to do the wheel bearings if they need replacing. If I remember right, the repro shop manual covers the knuckle re-do fairly well.

Try Statewide 4WD in Phoenix - 602.944.0396. They should have everything you need to repair your sloppy steering.



QUESTION: Does any one have some sage advice on repair to the bell crank pin mounting bracket? Pin is loose due to rounding over of bracket hole by previous replacement of pin with CJ3A pin (smaller diameter, threaded and mounted with nut under radiator. I replaced this years ago with the correct pin, but it has always been loose resulting in a lot of free play at the steering wheel which is now so excessive the car will no longer pass state inspection.


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QUESTION: How can I learn the various number and letter codes on my tires and also find what I need and where to get them?

ANSWER: Here is a great tire question and answer web source...




QUESTION: Where can I get new or used NDT?


A place in Dayton, OH - Tires Unlimited - (937) 276-2115 has new NDT tires for $63.95

Hiawatha Tire [used military]
Louise - phone answerer
2-6.00 x 16"
3-6.50 x 16"
2-7.00 x 16"
$20 bucks each [11/2/98]


V and K Tire [used military]
Virgil, manager/owner ?
Ringle WI
Wausau area


B and S Tire [used military]
Lakeville, MN


Wallace Wade Tires 600x16", same as original
Wallace Wade, owner


Coker Tire, about the same price... 1-800-251-6336


Rims, new, for this same tire.

Wally's Sales

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QUESTION: I am having trouble fitting my top. Why?

ANSWER: Remember, tops should only be fitted when warm... COLD tops will NEVER FIT properly.. They need to be stretched . Perhaps the bows you have were made to fit another top, and MAY need to be adjusted ( shortened or lengthened ) BUT NOT ON A COLD TOP.. Find a car dealer who will let you put jp in over night, with the top loose. then go in on a Sat if they will let you. and fit the top, and adjust the bows. I have had good luck fitting tops that way... You will also need some support rods or what ever going from the front bow to the windshield... inserted in the black strips on the underside of the top.



QUESTION: Where can I see an excellent overview of the Dana and Spicer 18 transfer cases?

ANSWER: Off-Road.com has an excellent overview here...




QUESTION: I decided to tear the tranny and xfer apart since I had it on the bench. I also found the intermediate shaft severely spalded on one side and the bearings slightly pitted. I will replace these but now I need to know if there is something I should be looking for in the tranny as I take it apart next. Any tricks on disassembly or reassembly? The cone and roller bearings look ok, but should I replace them anyway?

ANSWER: You should have the shop manual that covers the T-90. I've read mine through about 15 times now getting ready to do the job. The first couple of times I read through it all seemed Greek. I thought "Surly someone has put together a better manual for this thing by now." I kept going through it and memorizing the illustrated parts breakdown (IPB) until I now fully understand each and every step. I have come to the conclusion that it is fairly complete and will work well if followed in the correct sequence. I planned to disassemble mine today but it seems my wife had other plans, I guess there's always tomorrow. If you don't have a manual it would be a great help to buy one.

To the rest of you already been there and done that crowd, one of the steps says to inspect the bushings and replace as necessary. I can't find any bushings in the IPB nor anyplace a bushing should go except maybe for where the countershaft and reverse gear shaft are driven in. If there were bushings there, they shouldn't be worn because the shaft doesn't rotate or move. Any added info here would be appreciated.

See this website for assistance...
http://www.off -road.com/jeep/tech/trans/t90.html

Also, I had the same question regarding the bearing in the xfer case output shaft. The one I just received from Walcks doesn't fit. Looks like I'll have to ream it a bit. I also noticed the t90 diagram in my CJ manual doesn't show this bearing, just my truck manual. Could this be because the Willys trucks, with their larger chassis and more powerful engines, are simply a hardier beast than the diminutive cj's? Just a thought.

"A. Drain the lubricant and clean the outside of the case with cleaning solvent." Good idea to get the case as clean as possible to keep as much dirt and grime out as you can.

"B. Remove the shift housing and gasket from the top of the transmission." The instructions on the shift housing assembly stop here. As I figure out how to disassemble it, I will post to let you know.

"C. If the transfer case is attached, separate it from the transmission as outlined in Par. K-3." I didn't have to do this because mine had the model 20 transfer case that comes right off.

"D. Remove the three screws and washers attaching the front main drive gear bearing retainer to the transmission. Remove the retainer and gasket." Straight forward with no difficulty. However these screws were twelve point high torque bolts on mine. If all I had were 6 point sockets I would have had difficulty.

"E. Remove the two socket-head screws from the front end of the transmission case. These screws support the oil collector inside the case." These were also 12 point and are counter sunk. The guy that was in here last completely buried them with RTV.

"F. Tap lightly on the front end of the countershaft to loosen the lockplate. Remove the lock plate and from the slots cut into the rear ends of the countershaft and reverse idler shaft." No go sports fans. It was easy to tap the countershaft back enough for it to release the lock plate but the reverse idle shaft was a nightmare to get tapped back. I was finally able to get a small brass hammer down inside the case and about 35 blows later (very short throw) I was able to move the reverse idler back enough the release the plate.

"G. Using special tool No. W-166 or a brass drift, drive the countershaft toward the rear of the case and remove it. The countershaft gear set will drop to the bottom of the transmission case. If the special tool is used, the needle bearings will remain in the countershaft gear hub and the gears and bearings may later be removed as an assembly." As was expected this is all true. I drove out the counter shaft (not much force needed) and the countershaft gear set and bearings fell to the bottom.

"H. Remove the mainshaft rear bearing adapter." There was no way this was going to happen without a gear puller. The bearing adapter was baked on tight as could be. I opted to leave it in place and just attempt to pull the mainshaft out with the bearing adapter in place.

"I. Remove the mainshaft from the case. The mainshaft assembly with the gears still in place may be removed through the rear bearing adapter opening" I was able to accomplish this with the rear bearing adapter still mounted on the mainshaft. When you remove the mainshaft the pilot roller bearings will fall out and into the bottom of the case. Collect them up so they will not be lost. I later removed the rear bearing and bearing adapter by standing the mainshaft up on end and sliding the first/reverse gear up and down on the shaft. The tapping against the bearing drove it down and off of the shaft. The bearing and adapter must later be separated by removing the retaining ring. This could have been done before, allowing the adapter alone to be removed but you would still be stuck with the bearing on the shaft.

"J. Drive the main gear into the case enough top remove the . Remove the oil collector." Stop! Do not drive the main gear into the case until you remove the outside bearing snap ring. If you do you will be driving the snap ring into the front surface of the case. After you remove the snap ring (This is the large one of the outside not the small one on the inside of the bearing) drive the gear into the case just enough to move the oil collector out of the way. My oil collector could not be removed with main drive gear installed.

"K. Remove the main drive gear." Once the oil collector is moved out of the way you can slide the gear out through the front. You can not remove it from the rear. Now I was able to remove the oil collector.

"L. Remove the counter shaft gear set and the three thrust washers. Remove the needle bearings, and spacer from the assembly." Mine was missing the last thrust washer. There should be a total of 88 needle bearings, one spacer, six bearing group separator washers and three thrust washers.

"M. Remove the reverse idler shaft and gear by driving the shaft into the case using a brass drift." This was where it got ugly. Either my tranny is different or they (The books authors) made a huge mistake here. I was able to drive the reverse idler shaft about halfway forward through the reverse idler gear before it froze up solid. It took me about two hours with that little brass hammer to pound this shaft back out the other way. Turns out my idler shaft is larger of the rear end than it is on the front side. As it turns out my reverse idler gear's bushing is buggered up pretty bad. Not because of the pounding (although I'm sure that didn't help) but because of some small metal parts that collected inside. For those of you that don't believe in putting a magnet on the bottom I think you should think it through again. I don't know if I can change just the bushing or if I will have to change the whole gear.

When I worked on my T-90, I got a small parts kit that included six rings that bracket the rollers. My tranny originally had only four instead of six. There were no rings against the spacer. The service manual (written in '56) said older transmissions had four and that they should be updated to 6 when they are serviced. Deciding to use all six, I had to get a new, every so slightly shorter, spacer. Luckily my local Jeep shop had it, so it didn't introduce more than a couple hour delay in my rebuild.

I didn't have to "drive it out". It all came out without any unusual effort. Sorry to hear yours is stuck in the cluster.



QUESTION: How can I get my roller bearing to fit? It's too tight?

ANSWER: The center of my roller bearings fit very tight on the shaft. So tight in fact that they would normally have to be pressed on. I used an old USAF bearing installation trick (I'm not claiming we invented it, just used it). I put the main shaft in the freezer (lubed first) and heated the bearing in the hot sun (I finally found a use for San Antonio heat). After about an hour I installed the hot bearing on the cold shaft. The first time I did it, I didn't heat the bearing. About half way down it matched the cold of the shaft and contracted around the shaft. Stuck solidly in place. Even heated you must put the bearing all the way on the first try or it will stick in place. Do not heat the bearings with a torch as this can burn the grease and leave carbon deposits in the bearings. I guess those of you living in the Arctic Wastelands could heat the bearing in Momma's oven at around 130 degrees. Just don't let her catch you.



QUESTION: Does anybody know if anybody manufactures a tool to hold the yoke on the out put of a transfer case. Or is it something you have to fabricate for yourself? If any body can give me a manufacture name I would appreciate it.

ANSWER: If you mean a tool to hold the yoke in place while loosen and tighten the nut, I used a 16" pipe wrench. Then I got smart and hauled the whole thing over to someone with an air ratchet and zip they were off without even trying to hold it in place. If you are after a correct torque specification this would not be practical for installation. The pipe wrench worked fine for that. If you don't want little nick marks on it, slide two thin stips of tin in between the jaws and the yoke.

You could also make a holder from a thick strip of bar steel or even angle iron. You could drill two holes in it to match those on the yoke and bolt it on. I hope this helps.



QUESTION: Where can I read about rebuilding my Spicer 18 Transfer Case?

ANSWER: See this site...




QUESTION: How can you tell the difference between a model 18 and a model 20 transfer case?

ANSWER: The way you can tell is that the rear driveshaft exits the t-case in the normal way (directly behind the transmission)instead of the model 18 way where the front and rear driveshafts are lined up.

I remember reading somewhere that the big hole model 18 and model 20 used the same case.



QUESTION: Are all output bearing retainers alike?

ANSWER: They differ. Here is an explanation:

-There are some differences in rear output bearing retainers. In looking things over I thought I had messsed up something and covered over the hole in the casting for the oil feed. Taking it apart I found that the one I was using has a much smaller hole that the shims or the other retainer I have. I don't think it's an issue as this is at the bottom of the xfer so there will be plenty of oil in this area, just something to file away. By the way, the one with the small hole came from an xfer w/out an e-brake and the one with the larger hole came with an e-brake.

-I didn't use the gasket for the rear bearing retainer. With all of the shims I doubt that it would make much of a difference. I relied rather on the use of head gasket sealer between all of the shims, we'll see -- I may be pulling out the RTV if this area starts to leak. I also found that getting the shaft endplay set right was quite a chore, it's best left until you have time and patience. This was another reason I didn't want to use the gasket. I would have ended up compressing it multiple times before I got the number of shims right.

-I didn't use the wooden dowl technique for inserting the intermediate shaft. I didn't need it which was just as well as I don't like the idea of wood bits in my bearings. By lining the gear with bearing grease all the bearings stayed in place until I got to the last bearing which I had to gently snap into place holding the rest in position just like a keystone. I had one bearing left over, and had no problems with bearings falling out while I moved the gear around counting bearings. It turned out Walck sent me one too many. I had the case on the bench, on it's side and was able to move the gear into position, place the thrust washers, and slide the the shaft down through the hole.

-I didn't replace the lockout detent ball between the shift rails. In case you don't know this will now allow 2 wheel drive, low range. This puts all the torque to the rear so care needs to be taken not to be too heavy on the throttle with this option. I'll be curious if I ever actually find it useful.

-I had reported earlier that I messed up the replacement shift rail oil seals. I had hyper extended them when inserting the rails and the springs on the backside popped off. I ordered some more from Walck and he sent a different variety that look nice. They have a metal jacket on the backside as well and a material that looks more neoprene like than rubber. I also found that using a file to campfer the edges of the notches in the shift rails helps them to move passed the seals without catching.

-My original xfer had square drive bolts and safety wire holding the shift forks to the rails. The replacement had allen socket set screws. I used the square drives with LocTite and some safety wire from a co-worker who races cars (the 'real' safety wire was much easier to use than any bailing wire I would have boughten...it would be worth looking for a race shop to get some).

-I did not replace the bushing inside the front end of the rear ouput shaft as it only had .003" of play (I was told that .002" was the spec). My original xfer had lot's of slop... enough that measuring it would have only been academic.

-I still haven't closed the issue with the speedometer gear. All my cases have 6 tooth drive gears. There exist a 4 tooth gear, apparently. Swapping these requires removeal of the the rear bearing retainer. I hope to be able to get the ratio I need with the options for the driven gear, which can be changed without opening up the case, or using an external adapter.

-I was told that the output shaft seals I got were the good ones because they have some red stuff on the outside that creates a seal against the case and therefore I don't need the felt seals that I was also sent. Time will tell though I'll probably use the felt seals as well.



QUESTION: Where can I read an excellent overview on my T-90 transmission?

ANSWER: Off-Road.com has an excellent page about this at...




QUESTION: Can I drive in low range in 2WD?

ANSWER 1: From the 'Jeep' UNIVERSAL SERIES SERVICE MANUAL A built in interlock prevents shifting into low range, 2-wheel drive.

ANSWER 2: Yes, if the interlock pin is removed from the transfer. BUT, doing this doubles the torque to the rear wheels, and if not used carefully, and especially if done with stock axles and a bigger, more powerful engine, can wreak havoc on the rear axle. Others will know more, so you might want to wait for more info and compile it all into one answer.



QUESTION: My tranny or transfer case makes a hideous noise in 3rd gear. It only does it when I'm cruising. If I romp on the gas or let off the gas, it's quiet. Is that normal? I've been told by a few Willys owners that this is normal with the old transfer cases. But it doesn't seem right to me. Also, it pops out of 2nd gear when I let off the gas. Do I need a new transfer case? If so, which ones will interchange? How can I identify the one I have?

ANSWER: Noise: check intermediate shaft bearings and intermediate shaft, they are probably worn. In order to do this you need to remove the drain pan or inspection cover (it's harder to do through the inspection cover but less messy) on t-case grab the intermediate gear and push it up & down. Before I rebuilt mine there was almost 1/8" play. Cost about $10 for the shaft and 20 for the bearings. It can be replaced with the t-case in the vehicle.

2nd gear - Need new synchronizer rings most likely. There is also the off chance that the popet balls and springs are shot in the shift tower. The popets are easy to test, with the vehicle off and not moving check to see if the gear selector is too easy to move out of 2nd. If it's the syncro rings (most likely) you need to take the whole top end apart - might as well replace all the bearings while you're at it. $20 at JC Whitney gets you new syncro rings, plates and springs. Another 20 gets you the small parts kit (bearings, gaskets, thrust washers).

Had the same problem with my 47 cj2a jumping out of 2nd gear when I let off the gas, even after replacing the syncro rings poppets and bearings Had to tear it apart again and replace the 2nd gear assy the splines where the slider engaged the gear were worn down and wouldn't stay engaged. This may not be the problem but should be looked at to save yourself a second rebuild.

If you would like additional information on checking your t-case check-out my page devoted to rebuilding of this old box of gears @


The front main bearing is subject to a little more wear than the rear main bearing as it is being subjected to more heat from being up next to the engine and is turning at a faster rate than the rear main bearing when the transmission is being operated in a less than a 1 to 1 ratio. However, its design is such that it should not fail under normal usage if the rest of the transmission is all right. A bad input bearing or shaft and a bad pilot bearing are just some of the things that may cause a front main bearing to fail. Poor lubrication would be the main reason. A loose fit at the input/output shaft will also cause the transmission to pop out of gear. When they get that bad, alot of stuff probably needs replacing.



QUESTION: What is an "oil collector" on the T-90 transfer case?

ANSWER: The oil collector is a small plate in the bottom of the T90 (about $10 from 4wd Hardware catalog) I think it redirects the oil splash towards the front of the main shaft. It is secured with 2 Allen bolts and wraps around the side of the input shaft gear and cluster.

Oil collector is and [ was] only intended to slow the gears down when the clutch is engaged. It acts as a hydraulic brake, catching oil at top, running down the side of tranny and shooting it onto gears in opposite direction of travel , like a funnel, from what the old say, didn't work too well.



QUESTION: Where can I see some drawings of the transmission and transfer case on the CJ-2A; CJ-3A; CJ-3B; CJ-5 and CJ-6?

ANSWER: Here are the drawings out of the manual, on Derik Redmonds web page.






There's a bearing/bushing where the front output shaft goes inside the rear output shaft. I've a replacement, and my Chilton's manual says that I need to have the new one reamed to size but it gives so clearance specs. I'm hoping one of you with an original manual has that number.

I also noticed that the same Chilton manual (this is the large book for '61-'70 Trucks) mentions the safety wire on the shift fork bolts. I've two xfers, one with square head bolts and safety wire, one with Allen set screws. I only mention this since this went around a while back. I'm still trying to decide if I want to go with the safety wire or the set screws and Loktite.

ANSWER: Bearing bushing - don't know, when I put mine back together I used the existing one, as there didn't seem to be excess play and it spun freely - 4wd hardware does sell the bushings though.

My Willys service manual doesn't give a clearance, it only lists the ID as 0.627". If the front shaft is 5/8" that would give you 2 thous clearance.

Safety wire - I think I was the one who started this the last time, my t-case had hex head bolts on the front and rear "cones" and square bolts for the shift forks all drilled for safety wire. I used both Locktite and safety wire (overkill maybe but what does it hurt).

On my Spicer 18 I took my two shafts and bearing down to a machine shop and let them do put the bearing in. It was too tight to insert without a press and was also in need of resizing. Funny thing I noticed was there wasn't that much difference by feel from the old one. On my forks only the "hi-low" fork had a wire through the square bolt. The front output fork bolt didn't.



QUESTION: I'm back to work on the 47 and have the transmission and transfer case on the bench. First question: Here are all the numbers, what do they mean and is this original? On the tranny left side T90A1 2; Small plate on left side 7 15 47; Top of tranny by shifter cover 19 and H2071. Plate on top of the xfer case, ser. no j125475,low gear ______, model 18.

ANSWER: Sounds original. Manufacture date is 7/15/47 and its a Spicer 18.



QUESTION : The oil was relatively clean and there was minimal gunk in the xfer case pan. There was no real noise or any popping out of gears, although I drove it only a few miles between buying it and tearing it apart. Tell me what the best procedure is from here. There are no chipped gears, but it does seem to leak some oil. Is it possible to replace the seals without tearing the whole thing apart? Is there something I should look for inside. I have the manual, and am very good at following directions and know how to get to the transmission shop when I have all the parts scattered around the shop.

ANSWER: If you want to replace the seals some people have had luck getting the old one out some how with the t-case together and using something called a Vernco 2000 [A wooded gadget someone on the WT list made and sent, free, to people on the list who wanted one] to put the new seals in. Personally, mine came out in little tiny pieces after a couple hours of busting them up with a seal puller (t-case completely apart). With it on the bench it is relatively simple to remove the front cone and rear speedo section which makes it easier to get the seals out.



QUESTION: I plan on putting a lockout on my PTO lever to be sure that it doesn't get engaged accidentally. If the winch clutch is engaged that might get a wee nasty real fast. How can I do that?

SIMILAR STORY: You are right about the accidental winch engaged. We had a M-49 Fuel Truck that some one went to use to refuel a M-35 with and when they went to engage the PTO (which also runs the fuel pumps) to dispense fuel the winch was engaged and we ended up replacing the bumber, winch, grille guard and radiator just for major parts. It wasn't a pretty picture, and very costly lesson.

ANSWER 1: If you don't have a shifter boot installed, it would be relatively easy to install a lock out bar across the hole. It could pivot of one side and be pined with a ball lock pin on the other. When you wanted to use the PTO you could pull the pin and rotate the bar out of the way. I included a quick drawing of what I'm talking about.

ANSWER 2: The idea's rather simple, a small bracket with a pin that holds the lever in the unengaged position. I can imagine several ways to do this. The simplest is a small bar that flips down behind the lever. There's a hundred different retaining pins out there. I can't think of the name of it but the one I like has a small ball in the end and a button in the handle, push the button to allow the ball to fall into the pin so it can be removed through the hole (some socket wrenches use this). I could also come up with some rather complicated but fun-to-design mechanisms but in the end I usually find the most elegant solutions to be the simple one, cleanly executed.

ANSWER 3: I too was concerned about the lever accidentally being engaged . My solution to the problem was to install a hinged hasp, at 90 degrees, across the back side of the lever to keep it from moving. The hasp I used was about 1 1/4 inches wide and about 4 inches long. I bolted it down to the floor board so that the bolts are covered with the hasp when in the "locked" position To move the PTO lever, I have to lift the hasp and rotate it out of the way. The weight of the hasp keeps it in place in the locked position. To improve the mechanical advantage of the hasp, I turned down the end of the hasp so that it rides up on the lever about 1/2 inch. The "lock" has been in place for about 20 years and has never let me down.

ANSWER 4: The M-38 PTO setup included a lockout that bolted on to the floor. It has a Y shaped arm on a honge that when in the lock position would go around the PTO lever and hold it in the forward position. Flat Fenders Forever [flat fenders # is 207-465-7526] in Maine makes a great repro.



QUESTION: Where can I find used jps or jp parts on-line?

ANSWER: Off-Road.Com has both listed here...

Searchable vehicles for sale...

Searchable parts for sale...



QUESTION: Is there one written source (hopefully, a book) on early jeep history, which you could recommend?

ANSWER: Depends on what you mean by early history. If you want to know about its development, the best book by far is "Jeep: Its Development and Procurement Under Quartermaster Corps 1940-42" by Herbert Rifkind. This is chockful of accurate information. If you want a tainted history slanted toward Willys, then "Hail to the Jeep" by A.W. Wells. Not always accurate and downplayed Bantam and Ford's contributions. "Hail to the Jeep" was written in 1946 and probably is the main basis where most of today's books draw on for their interpretation of history. If you want early civilian history, you will have to wait awhile. Fred is writing one on the civilian prototypes and the CJ-2A. Over the last year I have been reviewing chapters for him for his book and it will bring out some of the lost tidbits that have been uncovered recently. Quite a few little surprises that people will find interesting. Stay tuned for this book. Todd Paisley - CJML

Check this history document out...
Jeep History



QUESTION: Does anybody have any suggestions for keeping an old jeep from being stolen?

ANSWERS: What I'm doing with mine is fabricate a boot for around the clutch or brake pedal so they can not be pushed in, Chains are to easy to cut and the electrical system is so simple it is just too easy to hot wire it to rely on anything like that.

A electrical cut-off switch would work if you hide it in a good spot. JC Wittless has these.

When I drove mine back in school, I used a bike cable locked to the right rear leg of the drivers seat. I would park it and turn the wheel to its stop and then lock the loose end to the steering wheel. You could also remove the coil/distributor wire.

You can do it the way that the military jeeps did in the past and that is put a piece of chain thru the steering wheel and have the other end fastened to the floor (bolted, welded, ect.) and just use a padlock to secure it.

Another trick is to remove the rotor, I use this method when I bring my jeep to school. How many people keep a spare rotor for a jeep in their pocket?

Make a "Touch Connector": It's a connector that can be wired to something like a screw on the dash or the back of a rivet head. It works like this. Unless you have grounded the system by placing your finger of thumb on this item the starter won't turn over. It's simple in it's operation in that no-one knows (or picks up) that as you turn the key you lean forward with your hand on that important part of the dash.

I read an article in one of these four-wheel-drive magazines that a reader had posted a while back. This individual said that he used to remove his coil wire when leaving his Jeep unattended until one day when it was stolen. Apparently the thief had used the #1 sparkplug wire as a coil wire and drove off with the remaining cylinders firing away. The guy further stated that he now uses a dummy wire comprised of vacuum hose and spark plug boots to play the role of the coil wire. Now, when the thief pops the hood, he or she will see nothing out of the ordinary.

I have an electric fuel pump which makes it very easy to put cut-off switch in the electric line. Go buy some wire and two toggle switches (I use two toggles so if they find one switch, they probably won't know there is a second hidden somewhere). A similar method will work well with the coil too. Heck, it costs no more than $15 and a little cleverness to hide the toggles.

You could disconnect you the coil wire and just place it on the coil, if someone got it started and would drive away the first bump would render the ignition useless.

You could install a fuel cut-off valve somewhere it would run for a minute and then mysteriously die on the thief.

Do it like the military. On the older trucks we had a length of chain welded to the body that would reach the steering wheel so you could pad lock it around one of the spokes. The HMMV had an aluminum body so they took a different approach. They put a tube under the dash next to the steering column and put a plastic coated steel cable thru the tube with a loop on the end. the bottom side of the cable was fixed so it would not pull out of the tube. You just pulled the cable out and locked it on the steering wheel. I like the cable & tube setup better. Neater & keeps the cable out of the way when not in use.

I never had need to find out if it worked, but I wired my Mico-Lock (brakeline electric solenoid) to the coil power, through a switch on the dash that was "on" when the handle was down. If someone started the Jeep and drove away, the brakes would stay on after their first stop.

One simple method of theft protection is to drill a hole in your clutch and brake pedals and put a bicycle lock through the holes. It doesn't completely disable the vehicle, but sure makes it difficult to drive. :)

I wired my Mico-Lock (brakeline electric solenoid) to the coil power, through a switch on the dash that was "on" when the handle was down. If someone started the Jeep and drove away, the brakes would stay on after their first stop.

This is one of my favorite methods as the rig starts right up and away they drive only to end up in traffic or some conspicuous place with it stalled. Being the cowardly scum that they are the thief will probably just leave it there rather than risk it. Of course this means your baby is in the middle of the road, but at least it's not too far away. This may not work in the hills or areas of less traffic density where they'll take the time to figure it out (I'm mostly worried about leaving my rig at trail heads).

Professional thieves know all about commercial alarms and standard techniques and will easily bypass these (like the coil wire technique). Thus I prefer a home built system. I was going to attach a schematic of a circuit posted to thejeeptech list a while back but couldn't find it that is similar to Ben's idea (as usual Ben get's the prize for simple elegance). This used an ignition cutoff circuit with a magnetic relay. Use a magnetic note clip on the outside of the dash to activate it. Move the magnet a few inches and the rig won't start. Nobody would think twice about a magnetic note holder (some note helps the realism) on a steel dash.

Don't forget as well that many pro thieves use a tow truck and just haul the rig away on a flatbed.

This starter disable device seems to be elegantly simple and very effective. I think I am going to install this on all my vehicles. It will pay for its self in insurance discounts, so why not (15-20%).


Here's my suggestion on vehicle security, get a sprint car type steering wheel disconnect from summit racing, they have the pin or pinnless type which makes it easy to take your steering wheel with you, this will only work if you are willing to give up your stock steering wheel. Cost is under $40 (+$30 for a modern greyhound steering wheel) . Lets see somebody try to steer a cj with a vice grips :)

Just unbolt the nut that holds the steering wheel in place and remove it when you are not in the vehicle. When my 3B is operational, I just walk around with my steering wheel. You get funny looks but anyone who owns a classic Jeep knows what you are doing.

I once had my daughters riding with me in my 48 CJ2A. We went to turn a curve and the wheel turned but the steering didn't because the nut had backed off just a fraction. We went off the road and took out a big wooden sign. Nobody was injured but it proved to me the importance of having that nut good and tight.

I used to be a repossessor in Chicago area and one of the best one's I saw was a man that had wired his ignition into a seat belt buzzer. That way the car would not start without having the seat belt on. There's not a thief in the world that will put a seat belt on when stealing a car, plus it also then makes sure that you don't forget.




QUESTION: Is the word "Willys" or "Willys Overland" currently copyrighted/trademarked? Unlike "Jeep", are we free to use "Willys"?

ANSWER: I don't know about copyrighted, but there is a company named Willys-Overland Motors in Toledo Ohio. They advertise that they sell a lot of NOS stuff that was purchased from the overruns etc at the Toledo factory. Matter of fact, they've got a 1/2 page ad in JP's May issue (just got it), advertising some NOS tailgates for CJ-7s, wagon/pickup windshield channel, etc. (BTW good issue of JP, it's chocked full of old Jeeps).

Trademark law regarding companies that have ceased operations is a legal quagmire. You have to maintain continuity of use to keep the trademark protected, and Willys has not been used on an ongoing basis. And there are many parts makers and publications that use the word Willys without licensing it from anyone.

The NOS company now known as Willys-Overland complicates matters further. The new (post-78) law is life + 75 years. Before that, it was a flat 50 years from the registration (rather initial or later). The question thus becomes when it was last registered?

As with many such issues the answer is not clear and if it actually reached litigation might go either way, in my opinion. I'm not an attorney but I suspect that they would waffle on the answer, too.

As an aside, I have heard that the parts and service manuals are no longer under copyright protection. I don't know this for sure, though.



QUESTION: How can I find old jeeps if I want to buy one?


1. Tell everybody you talk to that you like old jeeps (better to say old cars, cause that includes jeeps, and the friend or acquaintance usually doesn't make a big distinction) (I mean I've never been to a party where I've overheard, above the roar of the music, "Yea, my friend is looking for an early 46, column shift with combat wheels in Tan, low miles, uncut, runner/driver. Hey, can you pass the dip?").

The idea is to spread the word, then wait. Older people are better than young people, because they usually have more friends. Women are great, because they usually make all the decisions, and jeeps irritate them to no end. "If you don't get that piece of crap out of here, I'm gonna divorce you and take the kids to my mother's house." or "You'll never finish it, I'm getting rid of it."

It's always useful to have a few gear heads as friends, their lives revolve around cars and they may stumble across a jeep every now and then.

2. Drive into the mountains/rural areas, look in peoples' back yards (don't get shot). Take a camera, take some pictures. (I've only used this method to 'spot' the jeeps, never to take one in the wild.) Pin the pictures to your lapel. That way everyone you meet will know that you are a jeep guy and are a little strange. (that's a joke).

Some not only spot jeeps by driving in rural areas, but have gone to the door and asked about buying them, only to walk away with terrific deals. It works. Some will "mark" those jeep in their GPSs [Global Positioning Systems] and tell their friends where to find them.

3, If you are in a hurry and want to pay more, search the advertisements. There are always plenty of guys looking to make some quick money to feed their habit.

4. I think the best way if I was looking would be to talk to someone who owns one. Most Jeep owners I have talked to know who else has what in their area, and probably know who might have what for sale and at what general price. Many times I've just approached another owner talk Jeeps, and have always found people more than happy to share information.

[CJML - Ed Bee, Doug Skinner, and others]

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McNeilus Auto & Truck Parts 1-800-722-9318

Walck's 610-852-3110.

Midway Supply Co.
Post Office Box 153185
Irving TX 75015

Four Wheel Drive Hardware
44488 State Route 14
P.O. Box 57
Columbiana, OH 44408-0057
USA/Canada 1-800-333-5535
Int'l 1-330-482-4924 or 1-330-482-5560
Fax 1-330-482-5035

Gary or Louie
Farmington, MN

Brian's 4wdParts & Literature
428 North Harbor Street
Branford, CT 06405

Links to everything for Jeeps

Leo Porter
Midway Supply Co
709 Valley View Lane
Irving TX, 75015

Beachwood Canvas Works
39 Lake Ave
PO Box 137
Island Heights, NJ USA 08732
(732) 929-3168 FAX (732) 929-3479

On-Line list of parts sources:

Flat Fenders Forever 1-207-465-7526

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Here is a fine list to begin with...

(yet another broken link - if you where it went email me)


Where to find manuals and books:

http://www.amazon.com Amazon.com
Mvpa - Military Vehicles Preservation Association
Turner 4Wheel Drive
Bob Johnson Auto Literature


QUESTION: What do you think of the Chilton manuals?

ANSWER: I have found that Chilton's usually tells you what you already know. The larger size Chiltons manual (8.5 x 11) that I bought for my 63 CJ5 is a little more more useful than the smaller versions but it does span a broad range of years and can be limited in its' usefullness for your model. It does have some good pictures. In my experiences with Chilton's I have found a lot of misprints and editing errors. You might try to find one that is open so you can browse through before you buy. I think Haynes is a little better. Like anything, you get what you pay for.

I use a Chilton's manual in my garage, but only as a supplement to the Jeep shop manual.

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If you have a question that you would like answered and kept in this FAQ,
submit your question with the answer to this editor [Richard N. Meagley Sr. ,